Allodial - Herrschaft Schönwald *

This dominion, which at present is one of the possessions of Franz Xaver Wagner’s heirs, is composed of four estates: Schoenwald , Peterswald , Bohmisch-Kahn, and Klein-Kahn , which in earlier times were special dominions.  Schönwald and Peterswald , at the elevation and the northwestern slope of the Erzgebirge, are bordered to the north by the Kingdom of Saxony, to the south by the Schöbritz and the Tetschen, and to the east by Tetschen.  Bohemian and Klein Kahn lie south and apart from the previous ones, at this side of the Erzgebirge, between the Dominien Tetschen in the north, Schöbritz in the west and south, Priesnitz and Teutsch-Kahn in the east.

        As former owners of these estates, to which Prödlitz and Netluk were associated until the year 1773 (of which the former is now united with the Hft. Türmitz , but the latter forms a dominion for himself) are called: Wolfgang von Wresowitz , from 1550 to 1569 (who also owned Neuschloß , Teplitz and Graupen ); Bernhard von Wresowitz , from 1569 to 1571; his daughter Magdalena, who married Baron Kaspar von Schönbergfrom 1571 to 1577. In 1578 Schönwald (and probably also Peterswald) was bought by the Saxon Chamber Councilor Johann Georg von Sebothendorf , Bohemian Kahn , Klein Kahn and Prödlitz but by Adam Kölbel von Geißing . After the battle on the White Mountains, all goods fell into disrepair, as the owners had taken part in the uprising against Ferdinand II , the royal Fiscus, and Schoenwald (with Peterswald ) was sold in 1624 to Baron Franz von Cuvier , of whom it was also in 1632 on sale to Damian von Ottendorf , and of the same in 1633Joseph Rudolph Baron von Schönfeld passed, which latter at the same time the goods Böhmisch-Kahn, Klein-Kahn and Prödlitz of Ferdinand III. , received as a gift. The whole was now in the possession of this baronial, later count family, until the year 1704, where it came by marriage to the Count Franz Ignaz Wratislaw von Mitrowitz , after his death, 1714, his left wife Victoria, these estates until the J. 1727 possessed. From 1760 onwards they were the property of Count Franz Karl Wratislaw von Mitrowitz , Colonel-Erbküchenmeister in the kingdom of Bohemia, but were sold in 1773 to the highest bidder, on which occasion Prödlitz and Netlukseparated from it, the rest, however, as it still exists Baron von Hakelberg was acquired, from whose hands the Dominium 1801 by purchase to the grandfather of the present owner came.

The combined goods Schönwald and Peterswald have a length of 1½, and a width of ¾ to 1/8 geogr. Mile. The goods which are also kept together are Bohemian and small Kahn long and just as wide. The area of ​​the combined united Dominiums amounts to 8400 yoke.

The floor area of ​​the whole is, as already mentioned, mountainous in that the goods Schönwald and Peterswald lie at the height of the Erzgebirge and on the other side slope of the same. Also bohemian and small barge at this side of the Ore Mountains are covered with mountains and hills. The rock of the Erzgebirge is here Gneiss; at the foot of the same, near Kninitz , the mountain range is covered by ashlar sandstone, which stretches along the slope in a north-easterly direction to the back of the mountains with increasing thickness, and on the adjacent dominion Tetschen , near Oberwald , the urns completely covered the Erzgebirge. Through the Battle of Kulm, On 29 and 30 August 1813 of 330 par. Toises high Nollendorfer mountain over which the Chaussée of is Teplitz by Peter Wald and Dresden leads, become historically remarkable by the Russian General Ostermann , of the of front Tellnitz until occupied by the height of this mountain bottleneck with 8,000 men Russian, against the invading from Nollendorf French General Vandammeand his forty-thousand-strong army, bravely defended, and thereby gained so much time, that the allied armies of the Austrians and Prussians, returning from Saxony, could fall in his support, whereupon, by the battle of Kulmhimself, the armies of the French were wholly defeated Vandamme was captured. The k. Prussian General von Kleist , who was elevated to the rank of count as a result of this victory, also received the nickname of Nollendorf . Some time later, the French Emperor Napoleon , who was in person at the height of, made a wide view of the whole Teplitz valley and of the low mountain range, and even until that pointPrague -presenting Nollendorfer mountain was, a second attempt, from here to the interior of Bohemia penetrate that but also the k of the brave re able. Austrian General Field Master, Count of Colloredo-Mannsfeld , near Arbesau on 17 Septbr. failed, (see Hft. Kulm .)

About 1¾ mile northwest of Nollendorf is located on Schönwalder Rustical grounds of basalt existing Spitzberg, close to the Saxon border, so that its northern foot already touches the territory of the Kingdom of Saxony. It is also called Sattelberg, because, seen from Dresden and its surroundings, it resembles a saddle. In the meantime, by driving away considerable stretches of forest, which give him this reputation, the same has been lost for several years, so that this designation is no longer fitting. The view from this mountain not only covers Dresden and its surroundings along the Elbe to Pillnitz and Koenigsteinbut also a part of Upper Lusatia, Silesia and Bohemia.

The territory of all united estates is crossed by some mountain streams, which are sufficiently rich in water to drive mill factories. The creek that flows through the village of Schönwald and rises about ½ of a mile south of it, at the height of the Erzgebirge, takes its course to Saxony, where it receives its name from the town of Gottleuba , and pours into the Elbe near Pirna , after he had previously , near Gießhübel , has received the Peterswald brook, which receives its existence ½ St. south of Peterswald , not far from Jungferndorf , in the area of ​​the Dominium. The one at NollendorfThe creek which rises from this village and turns eastwards enters the territory of the dominion of Tetschen , and flows there along the foot of the Erzgebirge under the name of Bodenbach, likewise towards the Elbe, which it reaches below the village of Bodenbach and aboveTetschen . Through the above Koenigswald outgoing south, west of small and Bohemia-Kahn over flowing Mühlgraben it is to the rule Schöbritz connected Postitzer associated stream, the at Außigwhere he is called the Kleischbach, goes to the Elbe. At last, several small brooks springing up in the Schönwalder forests unite their course through the Silberberg-Grund, the Hohe Steig, the Langhammer-Grund and the Lehmgruben-Grund to the south, at Hinter-Tellnitz (see Hft Priesnitz and Schöbritz ) to a communal brook, which passes under different names, depending on the places where he passes , the territory of the rule Kulm and below Prödlitz(see Hft Türmitz ) falls into the Bila. All these mountain streams are very rich in trout and crabs.

In the village of Schoenwald , next to the castle and above this place, there are 6 small ponds filled with trout, and ponds stocked with carp at Bohmisch-Kahn , and 1 in the village of Klein-Kahn , which also contains carp. A pond near Böhmisch-Kahn is now used as a meadow. All these ponds belong to the authorities.

The population of the whole Dominium was 1830: 4852 souls strong. The inhabitants are all attached to the Catholic religion and speak quite Teutsch.

In spite of the harsh climate, the influence of which is attributed to the mountain estates of Schoenwald and Peterswald , the soil is of such good quality and so easy to work that, with proper fertilization, it yields sufficient yields of rye, barley, oats, and peas. The flax especially not rarely reaches a height of nearly 2 feet and is of proven quality. Also, much potato and turnips are won here. In the fields of Böhmisch and Klein-Kahnis heavy clay soil prevalent, but which is mixed up against the hillsides with much dissolved forest soil. It grows wheat, rye, barley, oats, but especially peas and vetches, including potatoes. The cultivation of fruit trees here is driven partly by the villagers into gardens, partly in the open field, but is not of importance. The hop growing is more productive, but it only takes place on official grounds.

The following is an overview of the whole area of ​​the combined four estates used for agricultural purposes:

 

 

dominicale

 

Rusticale

 

Together

 

Yoke .

 

Kl .

 

Yoke .

 

Kl .

 

Yoke .

Arable fields

134

562

298

437

432

Ponds (compared with fields)

1

607

1

Trischfelder

376

905

3855

332

4231

grasslands

197

964

1417

985

1615

gardens

6

596

ALIGN = “CENTER”>11

429

17

Ponds (compared to meadows)

6

212

6

Hut pastures , etc.

26

1272

118

730

145

groves

750

203

1075

649

1825

at all  

1499

 

521

 

6776

 

362

 

8275

 

The groves contain hardwood: red beech, maple, elm, ash, birch, aspen, etc., on coniferous wood but: fir, spruce, pine and larch. The yield of the forests are suitable exceeds the annual demand and the surplus is partly to Saxony, by means of navigation on the Elbe, where the wood to Außig is done on land, deposed.

The agricultural livestock from the following overview:

 

 

The authority

 

The subject

 

Together

Horses (late April 1830)

2 hours

75 hours

77 pieces

Cattle (do.

3 hours

1037 pieces

1040 pieces

 

Sheep (late May 1828)

1630 St.

1630 St.

The sheep are all part of the Saxon Electoral Race and their wool became the stone in 1825 (at 20 pounds) with 30 thalers of Prussia. Courant paid.

The fishing is carried out partly in the ponds, which are already mentioned above , partly in the streams, and chiefly supplies carp and trout.

Huntable animals are deer, deer and rabbits, as well as wild boar, capercaillie, hazel and partridge, snipe and wild duck. The proceeds are partly taken to Teplitz and partly to Dresden .

At the beginning of the year 1832, 518 persons worked on technical and commercial matters on the whole Dominion. The production of metal buttons and buckles is very widespread in the village Peterswald , which industry is maintained by 23 masters and 170 journeymen and other auxiliary workers. In Schönwald , Peterswald , Nollendorf , Klein-Kahn and Böhmisch-KahnThere are four bricklayer masters with 84 journeymen and 21 apprentices who operate their trade far beyond the borders of the Dominion. In addition, count on the Dominium 96 other masters and industrialists, namely: 7 bakers, 2 gunsmiths, 1 turner, 4 Cooper, 12 Leinweber, 2 Lohgärber, 3 master masons (31 journeymen, 4 apprentices), 1 Petschierstecher, 1 Posamentierer [ a trimming is a garment item] 1 locksmith, 10 blacksmiths, 18 tailors, 20 shoemakers, 1 stonemason, 1 hosiery, 6 carpenters, 1 watchmaker, 3 Wagner, 2 master carpenters, (16 journeymen, 3 apprentices). Among the twenty-eight persons nourished by the trade, there were 12 class or mixed merchants, 4 Getraid dealers, 2 paper merchants, and 4 persons who merely purchase markets.

The medical staff consists of 3 surgeons (in Schönwald , Peterswald and Böhmisch-Kahn ) and 3 certified midwives (in Schönwald , Peterswald and Nollendorf ).

Since 1706 there has been a hospital for seven benefactors of poor institutions in Schönwald , founded by the then owner Johann Rudolph Count von Schönfeld .

The location of the villages Peterswald , Jungferndorf , and Nollendorf on the Teplitz leading to Dresden Chaussée, as well as the small distance of the villages Bohemian – and Klein-Kahn from both the Teplitzer, Aussiger and Tetschner Chausséen, as from the Elbe facilitates the connection of the Dominions with the neighborhood and kingdom of Saxony to a high degree. Also since the year 1826 by community effort of the authority and the subjects a Chaussée from Schoenwald to Nollendorf was built. From Peterswald via Schönwald , Streckenwald , Ebersdorf and the Geiersberg after Sobochleben , as from Klein-Kahn on Saara andZuckmantel to Arbesau , only land routes.

The individual villages are the following:

1. Schoenwald , at the nw. Slope of the Erzgebirge, in a flowing from southeast to northwest, by the going to Saxony Gottleuba-Bache Thale, and s. Located on the foothills of the Spitzberg, a D. 1 of 261 H. with 1657 E., 5 M. of Leitmeritz, 2½ M. of Teplitz, and ½ M. of Peterswald , the next, reaching to the Saxon borders for about 1 hour Post office, away; has 1 hschftl. Castle with an English garden, 1 office house with the obrktl’s seats. Wirthschaftsamtes, 1 Bräuh. on 24 kegs 4 buckets, 1 distillery, 1 Mhf. and 1 sheep; furthermore 4 Wirthsh., 12 Mhlm., 1 oil mill and 1 millet mill and 3 Brettm. In the by Joseph Rudolph Count von Schönfeld In 1706, hospitals were built and spotted, and 7 arms are fed. Nothing can be said about the age of the local parish church at Assumption, which was completely rebuilt in the years 1790 to 1795, since the Lutheran pastors who were employed here and elsewhere around the time of the Thirty Years’ War have all the documents upon their emigration and church books. The oldest existing records of the re-established Catholic pastors do not go over the year 1649. From the 30th of March, 1655 to the 4th of July, 1671, the pastoral care of the PP Dominicans has been granted to the Foreigners , but after this time a new pastor was appointed. Part of the parish of this parish, except Schoenwalditself, no other place. The villages Peterswald , Nollendorf and Bohemian-Kahn , which eingepf in earlier times to Schoenwald . were later separated from it by their own pastors.

2. Peterswald (also Peterswalda), 1 St. from Schönwald , at nw. Slope of the Erzgebirge, in a valley going from south to north, on the Chaussée and Poststrasse from Teplitz to Dresden , a 1 h long, reaching to the Saxon borders D. of 375 H. with 2242 E., has 1 kk Commercial Wreath Customs Office, 1 kk Aerarial Post Office, 5 Mhlm., 2 Retreat Houses, and 4 Inns. Of the objections, 193 individuals deal with the production of metal buttons and buckles. From the former local Commendatkirche under the title of St. Nicholas, which became the parish of Schoenwaldbelonged, inaugurated in 1495, 1639 by the Swedes in ashes, 1656 and 1657 but under the then owner of the estate, Niklas Freiherr von Schönfeld was restored, are now only ruins within the churchyard. It was elevated to a parish church in 1783, under Emperor Joseph II , and, together with the school, placed under the patronage of the kk Religionsfonds, at whose expense in 1793 the present new church, outside the churchyard, was built. Two bells, which have been transferred from the older church in this new church, bear the year 1657th Eingepf. is, except the D. Peterswaldeven, only a few feet away from the lowest end of the same, lying close to the Saxon borders and included in the number of houses in Peterswald, a single layer of starvation . This consists of 1 Mühlausgeding cottage, 1 Mhl and Brettm., 1 obrktl. Mhfs.-building together with Schäf. and 1 obrktl. Jägerh. Due to the dilapidation of the older Mhfs buildings, a new farm was built in 1823, which, like the Dfch., Newly created on these grounds in 1824, was given the name Neuhof . Two coats-of-arms at the door of the old Mhfs building prove that the same had formerly been the property of the Lords of Bünau .

3. Nollendorf (formerly Nahlendorf, as the local peasants call it now), 1 p. S. Of Schoenwald , at the height of the Ore Mountains, and on the Chaussée leading from Teplitz to Peterswald (under 50 ’45’ 2 “wide and 31E 38 ’53 “longitude), D. of 88 H. with 487 E., has 1 Retreat House, 1 Wirthsh. and 2 Mhlm., which are ¼ St., ö. of places, in “Holzgrunde.” The formerly existed, belonging to the parish of Schönwald St. Joseph’s Chapel was in 1787 under Emperor Joseph II.raised to a locality and placed under the patronage of the kk Religionsfonds together with the school. It stands on the height of the Nollendorfer mountain, 339 Viennese Kl. Over the North Sea (after David). Eingpf. is, except Nollendorf , only the D. Jungferndorf . The importance which Nollendorf and its surroundings acquired in the War of Liberation in 1813 was already mentioned above in the general survey of the cathedral.  Emperor Napoleon had his headquarters in the local vicarage on 17 September.

4. Jungferndorf or Sandhöhe, ¾ St ,. ö. v. Schoenwald , between Nollendorf and Peterswald , at the Teplitzer Chaussée, a first founded in 1805, after Nollendorf eingpf. D. of 22 H. with 98 E., which got its name from the Jungfernwalde surrounding it.

5. Böhmisch-Kahn , 2 St. sö. Von Schönwald , at the foot of the Erzgebirge, not far from the Arbesau to Tetschen leading Chaussée, D. of 46 H. with 266 E., 1 in 1825 by the then owner of the rule; kk Lieutenant Franz Xaver Wagner, built Herrnhaus, furthermore 1 obrktl. Mhf., 1 Shepherd, 1 Wirthsh., And 1 outside the place next to the Katzbache, on a flat meadow lying obrigkeitl. former handsome bleach house. Several sources springing up in the village form small streams, which continue to unite to form the Postitzer Bache. The local parish church, under the title of h. Martin B., is nw. from the village, about 50 steps from the outermost houses, and in the years 1712-13, at the joint expense of the landlord of the time, Franz Ignaz Count Wratislaw von Mitrowitz , and the entire village. Built in 1714 and consecrated. Until the years 1740 or 1750 it belonged to the parish of Schoenwald , but it was then, under the landlord Franz Karl Count Wratislaw von MitrowitzIt was elevated to a parish church to be administrated by the Dominican Convent at Außenig , which now, together with the school, is under the patronage of the authorities. Eingpf. are, except Böhmisch-Kahn itself, the hschftl. D. Klein-Kahn , and the fremdhschftl. Teutsch-Kahn , Saara , Zuckmantel , Kninitz and 1 single-layer mill in Holzgrunde under Nollendorf, From the former old church, in the middle of the D., after removal of the ship only the presbytery stopped and became a chapel of the holy. Grave has been rebuilt. There is a lack of news about the original founding and past history of this older church.

Only partly to the Hft. Schoenwald belong the following Dfr .:

6. Small barge , 2 hours south of Schönwald at the foot of the Erzgebirge, and a little to the right of the Teplitzer after Chet beetsche leading, one after Böhmisch-Kahn eingepf. D. of 27 H. with 155 E .; Schoenwaldowns 14 H. with 84 E .; the rest belongs to the Heft Schöbritz (see Hft. Priesnitz ), where the whole D. is also conscribed. At Schönwalder Antheile is 1 obrigktl. but emph. Mhf., 1 distillery and 1 Wirthsh.

7. Tellnitz , D. of 50 H. with 246 E. It belongs to it only medium Tellnitz , with 4 H. and 18 Inw. , Which pours after Ebersdorf . is, to the Hft. Schoenwald ; the remainder to Kulm and Schöbritz (see Dominions), in which the whole of the D. is conscribed. 

Contribution by Ms Martina Heller. 
____________________

Source : Johann Gottfried Sommer,  “Allodial – Herrschaft Schönwald “, Topography of the
Leitmeritz Circle,
 1833, S. 222 – 228.