The "Schoenwald Schoenwald" 1580-1848
After the dissolution of the rule Graupen in 1580 bought Damian (Tam) of Sebottendorf , a Electorate of Saxony chamber and estate owners in the Saxon Rottwerndorf , the villages Peterswald and Nollendorf with two forest roads on the upper Tellnitz and the Sernitz. He founded his own estate with castle and official residence in Schönwald . The » Schoenwald reign « included several other villages over the centuries. Schoenwald , Peterswald and Nollendorf , however, remained until 1848 always there. They shared the fortunes of the rule Schoenwald, When buying his Bohemian goods Damian von Sebottendorf had insisted on the complete independence of the corresponding villages, so that Emperor Rudolf as owner of the rule Graupen had to relinquish the right of compulsory beer in Schönwald , Peterswald and Nollendorf to which the city of Graupen was entitled the beer compulsion of the new rule Schoenwald was included. On May 27, 1580 already confirmed Rudolf II , Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia, an exchange agreement, also called change or circulation. In it leaves pearl barleyto the Kaiser and King Bierschank in six villages, including Schönwald and Peterswald . As a result, a brewery was built in Schönwald . Tam von Sebottendorf , born in Kunern in 1519 , came from a Silesian noble family. In 1541 he became a listener at the University of Leipzig . In 1549 he advanced to the electoral chamber secretary, on 11 September he married the electoral council daughter Anna Komerstadt and acquired in 1554 the manor Rottwerndorf near Pirna , where he built a castle. As Electoral Council in 1556 he became a member of the Supreme Court in Leipzig and 1563 Potion tax collector. When he traveled to Prague with the Elector in 1578 , he took the opportunity to acquire possession in Bohemia. On the day of the founding of the rule Schönwaldhe was accepted into the Bohemian subjects association. Later he became Privy Councilor of the Elector Augustus of Saxony . Tam was wealthy. In 1578 he lent the town of Aussig 500 talers to buy three villages, which were repaid to him in 1584. On Tam von Sebottendorf , who died in 1585 and whose grave monument is in the Marienkirche in Pirna , followed his son Johann Georg von Sebottendorf 1585-1604. This was anxious to increase his own possessions in Peterswald by buying farm goods and acquired thereby the » Lower tavern «in Peterswald . Then he sold the Schönwalder Schenke (the Erbrichtergut) for 1700 Taler on April 21, 1589 to Matz Scherber with free battles, baking, salt and brandy, took it back in 1595 for the same price and left it on May 27, 1596 for 2000 thalers the Georg Püschel, It remained in the possession of his family until 1745. The old parish inn, which belonged to the judiciary, stood in the same place as the later town hall. In the tavern, the court days and marriages took place, in which land register entries were made, estate was negotiated and disputes settled among the inhabitants. Here the judge brought the decrees of the supreme administrative and state authorities to the inmates. Even the most important events in life, such as birth, marriage and death found their echo in the tavern. Baptisms, weddings and funeral feasts were celebrated in the tavern after old custom. Here also the so-called “Tauschkenbier” was drunk, which the local inmate after the annual commission of the field borders or preparing of ways at community costs was. Beer and wine had to be sourced from the rule. Except the tavern in the Erbgericht inSchönwald there were two more in Peterswald , namely one in the central village and the “Lower Tavern” on the border, which Johann Georg von Sebottendorf sold in 1601 to the Peterswald schoolmaster Hans Grahl . After Johann Georg von Sebottendorf’s death in 1606 led his widow Dorothea (in 1612 she married Anton von Salhausen ) as guardian of her children from their first marriage, the administration of the rule Schönwalduntil about 1615. After her son Johann Damian had taken over the rule He participated in the Bohemian uprising in 1618 and was sentenced to lose half his fortune. In 1622 Damian was expelled as Lutheran of the country. When the Protestant imperial army invaded Bohemia in January 1632, Damian von Sebottendorf once again temporarily took possession of the Schoenwald estate, Already in September of the same year, however, he had to leave Schonwald again, this time for good. Then Franz von Couriers bought the rule Schönwald for 28.968 shock 1 Meißnerischer groschen. He was a lieutenant colonel in the Waldstein Regiment and imperial commissary. After his death at the Battle of Lützen in 1632, his widow Josina , née von Heeden , married in 1648 with Nikolaus von Schönfeld . Thus, Nikolaus Freiherr von Schönfeld became owner of the Schoenwald estate and lord of Peterswald and Nollendorf . He was followed by his son Rudolf Wenzel Freiherr (since 1678 Count) von Schönfeld . His wife wasMagdalena Viktoria , a born Countess von Waldstein . Both married people had two bells cast in 1667 for the rebuilt church in Schönwald , one of which even survived the Second World War. The other, larger, became victims of the war when it needed to be melted down. In 1673 Rudolf Wenzel, Freiherr von Schonfeld , granted his subjects, who had become destitute during the Thirty Years’ War, the remission of debts and interest on church funds. In 1680, he bought two tin candlesticks for church purposes. Rudolf Wenzel Count von Schonfeld died on Setsch on 5 August 1684 at the age of 39 years. His two heirs, his sons Josef Rudolf and Josef Franz, Count von Schönfeld , were unmarried and entered into a contract according to which all possessions should pass to their sister’s children when they died. When Josef Rudolf died childless in 1704, the hereditary introduction of his sister Maria Viktoria , married since 1706 with Franz Ignaz Count Wratislaw von Mitrowitz , took place in half of the possessions. After a settlement concluded in 1706 with Count Josef Franz von Schönfeld , Count von Mitrowitz arrivedin the full possession of the rule. He had a stone coat of arms with two heraldic shields placed under the Count’s crown above the entrance gate of the castle with the inscription: Franz Ignaz Wratislaw , the Holy Roman Empire Count of Mitrowitz , Lord of Schönwald, Rom. Imperial Majesty Real Geheimber Rath, chamberlain and governor in the Kingdom of Böheimb. Maria Viktoria, Countess Wratislaw , nee Countess von Schönfeldt . After his death on March 15, 1715, the widow Maria Victoria governed until 1727. Thereafter, her sons, Johann Josef and Franz Karl , until 1732 together rule, later Franz Karl alone until his death in 1759. In his will of October 1, 1704, Josef Rudolf decreed in Item 18 that as soon as possible after his death a hospital would be built in Schonwald . He left behind 5,000 Rhenish guilders and donated 400 florins for the construction of the hospital. He bequeathed 1000 Reichstaler 2 to the Schönwalder church . In addition, he instituted a chaplaincy and, in the seventeenth of his will, caused twelve arms to be richly served on Maundy Thursday, and to receive a gift of money. However, he rejected the requests of the farmers of Schoenwald and Peterswald for liberation from the robot despite repeated requests. The administration of the rule Schönwald led under the Freiherrs of Couriers and Schönfeld Aussiger citizens. In 1628 a Thomas Rochus von Lichtenfels “Haubtmann”, who in 1667 donated the small church bell, which was taken in the First World War. In the years 1727 to 1737 Johann Joseph Wratislaw and Franz Karl Wratislaw draw together as the authority of the rule Schoenwald . From 1732 Franz Karl signs alone as landlord. He was with Maria Anna , nee Countess Kinsky, married. During his tenure, he issued to his power administration several so-called economic memories as formal guides to the administration of his estates such as those in Schönwald fürohib led and what else would be observed in the economy. They contained guidelines for the officials for the cultivation of the fields, for the use of the meadows, for the enterprise of the forest and pond economy, for the livestock breeding, for the fertilization, for the brewery enterprise and the like. His son Franz Karl the Younger was married to Maria Anna , nee Countess Des Fours, He was Chief Erbküchenmeister in the Kingdom of Böheimb. Like his father, he issued economic regulations, which he had made available to the officials in his presence, and wanted to know without interruption. Some of them regulated the beer shop and the donors’ obligations to the guests. Before the year 1712, every Bierschenker had to buy and wear out 8 Seidel brandies from the authority of the distillery for each barrel of beer which he took from the rule. The sales of the brandy was difficult, as people preferred to drink schnapps from Saxony, probably because it was cheaper. When the donkeys requested the domination to release them, the authorities agreed to this request, but demanded a levy of 4½ kreuzers for each duty beer. The rule was careful that always only good beer was served. The maltsters (brewers) were strictly controlled. On 40 barley bar had to come 21 tap and a bucket of beer to the tap. The beer barrels were made of oak. The wood for this was referred to from the rule to Tetschen. The hosts had to properly care for the beer, give proper measure and have calibrated vessels. Slapping – mixing the beer with water – was strictly prohibited. Compliance with these rules, which conformed to the German Purity Law of 1516, was strictly controlled. Maria Anna Countess Wratislaw , born Countess Des Fours de Mond, was very demanding. As a result of their tremendous efforts, the goods fell very heavily and were burdened with debts, so that a Landgrave’s ordinance of 4 June 1783 provided for the district valuation of the goods for auction. The court administrator was Georg Buch . In 1793 Schönwald became the highborn HH Joseph Rudolph , the holy. Rom. Rich Freiherr and Panier of Hackelburg Landau , your kk apost. Majesty’s real treasurer and appellate court judge sold in the Kingdom of Bohemia. Freiherr von HackelburgIn 1795, he proposed to all his subjects that they should give all the farms their leasehold; they could replace the robot completely with a cheap one. But this unusually progressive proposal was rejected by the people blinded by the French Revolution. Their envoys declared that the landlords only wanted to deceive their subjects, anyway he would have to give it up anyway, as soon as the successful revolution in France spread to Bohemia. On February 28, 1802, the brothers Franz and Anton Waagner from Kninitz became high- ranking and highly noble founders in Schönwald . Franz was a wine merchant, Anton Ledergroßhändler. Since December 24, 1802, Franz Waagner has been the sole author. His wife was Elisabet , nee Burkhard , from Nollendorf . From 1814 to October 1816, her son Franz Xaver painted Waagner first as an administrator, later as landlord and owner. His wife was Josefa Klara , née Sonnewend , from Aussig. By careless, unregulated economies the owner Waagner got into debt and the rule in decay. When all resources had dried up in 1828, an imperial license for the raffle Schoenwald was obtained. 185,000 tickets were printed, but not all could be sold within a year. At the draw on January 28, 1828, the mayor of Sibiu in Transylvania won the rule Schoenwald . Franz Xaver Waagnerhowever, managed to regain control. After his unexpected death on February 5, 1829 due to a stroke at the age of 49 years, his wife and his children were heirs of the reign. The widow Waagner got into debt due to unfortunate speculation and lack of economic viability, so that the rule was sold on January 20, 1836 in the Prague country house and sold for 139,101 guilders Converted coin to the provincial lawyer Likowetz from Prague . On June 13, 1836, he moved in as new owner and Mr. von Schönwald . On his first church visit, he gave the pastor 50 guilders for the local poor. As Dr. Likowetz died on December 16, 1837 in Prague and his heirs could not agree on the administration of goods, the rule Schönwald was sold again, this time to the red dyer and wool merchant Anton Balle from Zwickau in Bohemia for 270,000 fl. Converted coin. The new landlord Balle held on April 2, 1843 under firecrackers solemn entry into Schoenwald . Unfortunately, a failed Böller shot killed a 17 year old Schönwalder. The administration of the rule provided employed officials, who changed frequently and who had to report regularly to the owner in Zwickau and account for it. After Anton Balles death passed the possession of the reign to his sons. Through inheritance, the shares in the ownership, which the banker owner Emanuel Sommer from Böhmisch Leipa acquired in 1878, diminished . He renovated the neglected castle building, slated it, enlarged the windows and renewed the interior. In the summer the owner lived in Schönwald . In December 1893, Friedrich Graf von Westphalen bought Fürstenberg ‘s rule Schoenwald . He dissolved the economic administration in Schönwald and managed the goods from his estate in Kulm . In 1898 he built a new road through the forest. When he died aged 1900 at the age of 91, his son Ottokar von Westphalen inherited the rule Schönwald . He had a poor asylum built in 1909 near the church. This was regarded as a resurrected hospital donated by Joseph Rudolf von Schönfeld in 1704 and Wratislaw von Mitrowitz Built in 1706, but it fell into disrepair in 1808 and had to be abandoned and demolished in 1813. After the founding of the first Czechoslovak Republic, Ottokar von Westphalen was expropriated, as were all German landowners, in the course of the land reform . Although he was allowed to call the forests continue his possessions, but the leased fields were purchased in part by the tenants themselves, but for the most part taken over by the city of Aussig and converted to pastoralism. When the new land register was created in 1679, Christian Friedrich Püschel was a judge in Schönwald . Jurors were Georg Rützschel , Christoph Püschel , Martin Rützschel , Jakob Rützschel , Hans Setmacher , Georg Umblauft . Community elders were Georg Wolf , Michael Rützschel , Hans Schönbach , Michel dispute, The “courts” – these were the judges and the court jurors – were appointed by the authorities. The judge had a deputy, the deputy judge. The community elders were to be regarded as the representatives of the community. The judge Christian Friedrich Püschel had acquired the judge’s goods on 26 December 1666 for 800 shock (to 70 cruisers). His son Johann Heinrich Püschel , who took over the paternal estate on January 9, 1710, was also a postmaster. On May 2, 1745 Hans Georg Zechel bought the judge’s goods for his Eidam Hans Georg Beyl . In 1674, Hans and Christoph Rütschel bought the “Untere Schenke” in Peterswald , almost at the end of the village on the Saxon border, from the landlord Count von Schönfeld for 200 shocks. The tavern had come into the possession of the reign, because the son of the deceased Nikolaus Heyne named George did not want to accept the holy and blessed catholic religion alone and escaped to Saxony. Georg Rütschel , who was married to the sister of the escaped George , bought the tavern in 1653. Own successor was in 1713 his son Hans Georg Rütschel . It was followed in 1718 Thomas Gröschel , who had married the widow of Hans Georg Rütschel . The lower tavern, which Wenzel Hantschel had rebuilt in 1769 and named the “Black Horse” in honor of the wagoners who entered the tavern, proved to be inadequate in view of the ever-increasing traffic between Bohemia and Saxony. Therefore, in 1813, his son erected the large house No. 352 opposite the tavern as a hotel with dance hall and moved the host business there. The peasant uprising of the year 1680, which was suppressed by military force, also involved Peterwalder farmers. Lorenz Kliem was one of the four farmers of the circle Aussig, which were hanged in May 1680 on the Aussiger court mountains. With the approval of the district office Leitmeritz of 30 September 1822, the Schönwalder rule was allowed near the village Raiza to familiar subjects some construction sites from Meierhof hungry cloth to leave. These construction sites formed a useless hut pasture under the name »Bienhof«. This name already appears in the oldest land registry of the parish of Peterswald from the year 1577. The settlement on the Hungertucher Bienhof received the name Neuhof with its own numbering. After the March Revolution in Vienna and in Prague, the urge for freedom was also felt in the Erzgebirge. Demands for freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of choice and a constitution were raised in Nollendorf and Peterswald . The residents demanded freedom of association and people arming. Although the popular uprisings in Vienna and Prague were suppressed by the military, Emperor Ferdinand was forced to make concessions. A Reichstag was called to Vienna , but soon had to relocate its seat to Kremsier . Many hopes remained unfulfilled. Nevertheless, the abolition of obedience and robot 3 were important achievements. The guidelines for the basic relief were already given by the patent of 4 March 1849. The Robots, the lordly levies, were replaced by the basic interest in church grounds, which allowed for donations to the pastor and the teacher. The purchase of beer at the stately breweries was also considered detached. Hunting law, which up to now had exercised dominion over peasant reasons, now fell to the communities themselves. The villages were independent of the rule Schönwald . They were no longer subject to the landlord and her bailiff in terms of revenue and labor, justice and legal protection. From now on, they were accountable to the state and its kuk officials – its executors. The political reorganization of the country could be carried out only after overcoming all sorts of difficulties in 1850. The villages belonging to the rule Schönwald were assigned to the political districts Aussig and the judicial districts Karbitz . At the head of the parish was now also in Peterswald instead of the former judge a “chief”, who was subordinate to the district captain in Aussig . The election of the head of the municipality took place under the new electoral law, which provided for three electoral bodies. In the reorganization of the political administration Peterswald stroveto get even a district court. However, this demand remained unfulfilled. The way to the superior political authority after Aussig was now further than before 1850 to the stately office in Schoenwald . But the way to the district court and tax office in Karbitz was a bit shorter.