Geschichtliches über Peterswald im Erzgebirge
The foundation of the village
Around the year 1000 AD, the country of Bohemia was still surrounded by a wide border forest, which formed a natural protection of the interior. Only a few roads led out of the country, which they called “rural roads”. Such was also the salt road, which probably since ancient times from Halle (Saale) on Gottleuba against hunger cloth to the Holzgrund (Ober-Königswald) on Kleinkahn, Saara, Troschig, Postitz to Aussig to the Elbe and from there on over the mountains on led against Prague. It was, as we know from later times, the privileged “commercial road” that led from Prague via Aussig-Peterswald to Saxony. The earliest news dates from 993 AD, when Kulm and Aussig are mentioned as customs offices. Landlords and landlords of the mighty border forest were the dukes of Bohemia, the parts of the forest were given to their vassals or monasteries. Thus, in 1169 the Knights received a forest area on which they established the villages Bohemian-Kahn, German-Kahn, Munich, Leukersdorf, Königswald and others, typical German Waldhufendörfer. Königswald was probably founded only at a time when the Przemyslid dukes had gained the royal dignity. At first she owned Vladislav (1158-1173), later she received hereditary Przemysl Ottokar (1197-1230), known as the patron of German colonization. The colonization of the Ore Mountains presumably started from the castle Königstein, which was built by King Wenzel (1230-1253), which was called “new castle” in 1240, and proceeded along the old trade routes, up in the river valleys of Gottleuba and Müglitz aspired to Bohemia. For the construction of the farms to the original 79 hooves the groundwater conditions prevailed, so that the village was created slightly away from the old salt road, which led through the field lengths of the old hoof goods, a proof that it existed before the founding of the village , In the name of Peterswald, which first appears in its German form in 1352 (in Latin Petri silva), the name of the man who, as an entrepreneur (locator), determined the land designated by the sovereign to found a village against a specific “guide”, was most probable. took over and pledged to occupy it with colonists in a certain time. For his trouble he received a free-hoof with certain privileges, such as the village jurisdiction and the rights of the beer and Salzschankes.
About the landlords (masters of ownership) of Peterswald we learn only since the mid-14th century. Since 1352 patrons of the church in Peterswald were the lords of Wartenberg, who were rich in northern Bohemia, so Benesch von Wartenberg 1367-1371 on Tetschen, 1429 Sigmund von Wartenberg on Blankenstein and 1452 his cousin Johann von Wartenberg on Blankenstein, with the Electors of Meissen were in dispute over the jurisdiction of Peterswald. The border with Saxony was not established until 1459 (on the day of Eger). Pirna, Gottleuba and other places belonging to the Deanery of Aussig, such as Königstein, Reinhardsdorf, Hermsdorf, Markersbach, Ölsen and Rosenthal, were ceded to Meissen.
Im Jahre 1506 bildeten Peterswald, Schönwald und Nollendorf ein Zugehör zur Herrschaft Graupen und verblieben dabei bis zurn Verkaufe dieser Herrschaft im Jahre 1579.
The names of the pastors of Peterswald, who often changed, are known to us from the confirmation books of the Prague Archbishopric, which provide information about this until the beginning of the Hussite Wars. In June 1426, the Meißner Hilfsheer, which was supposed to liberate the city of Aussig besieged by the Hussites, moved partly from Pirna, where the riflemen requested by the city of Leipzig were to gather, via Peterswald to Bohemia. Bihana “beaten at Herbitz. The Hussites then undertook raids also to Saxony and searched thereby also probably Peter forest home. The church seems to have survived the Hussite storm, since 1429 a new pastor moved here. Then any church news is missing, only in 1489 is again called a pastor Michael in Peterswald. On the 8th In October 1495, the newly built church in Peterswald was inaugurated by Meissen suffragan bishop Johann von Salhausen (1487-1518), as evidenced by an inscription on the large bell, which dates from 1657. The inauguration of the new church was thus three years after the discovery of America. At that time ruled in Bohemia and Hungary King Vladislav, under whose government the free movement of rural people was brought to an end. It was the beginning of the statutory definition of serfdom, in which the peasantry was to remain for almost 300 years. At that time ruled in Bohemia and Hungary King Vladislav, under whose government the free movement of rural people was brought to an end. It was the beginning of the statutory definition of serfdom, in which the peasantry was to remain for almost 300 years. At that time ruled in Bohemia and Hungary King Vladislav, under whose government the free movement of rural people was brought to an end. It was the beginning of the statutory definition of serfdom, in which the peasantry was to remain for almost 300 years.
After the death of Louis I in the Battle of Mohacz in 1526, Bohemia and Hungary fell to the House of Habsburg, which ruled until 1918. From the first half of the 16th century, news about Peterswald is missing. Until 1579 it belonged to the rule Graupen, so that the judge and Schenker had to get the beer from barley. Lutheranism seems to have found its way into the second half of the century, when Catholic clergy elsewhere had turned to the new doctrine. The Catholic pastor Peter Hübner, who worked from 1568 to 1574 in Peterswald, was followed by the priest Martin Prätorius, who, in spite of his 1570 in the hands of the Aussiger Dechants took oath in 1578 to Lutheranism.
Peterswald as belonging to the rule Schönwald
At the dissolution of the rule Graupen bought on 18 January 1580 Damian (Tam) of Sebottendorf the villages Schoenwald, Peterswald and Nollendorf and formed from their own estate with the castle and offices in Schoenwald. He was the owner of Rittergut Rottwerndorf in Saxony. In the acquisition of his Bohemian rule, he had insisted on the complete independence of the associated villages, so that Emperor Rudolf as owner of the rule Graupen had to replace the right of the city of Graupen beer in Schönwald, Peterswald and Nollendorf, whereupon the mentioned villages were included in the beer compulsion of the new rule Schönwald. The brewery in Schönwald was therefore built soon after the purchase in 1580. On Tam von Sebottendorf, who died in 1585, followed his son Johann Georg von Sebottendorf from 1585 to 1604, who sought to increase his own possessions in Peterswald by purchasing peasant goods and thus acquired the lower tavern in Peterswald.
of Hans Georg von Sebottendorf on Rottwerndorf and Schoenwald as a former lord of Peterswald
After his death led his widow Dorothea, who married again in 1606 with Anton von Salhausen, as the guardian of children from their first marriage, the administration of the rule until about 1615. Her son Johann Damian (Tam) participated in the Bohemian uprising in 1618, became the Loss of half of his assets sentenced and died on March 23, 1623 in Dresden. At this time in 1623 and 1624, the Protestant pastors were also expelled from the country.
Buyer of the reign Schoenwald was Franz von (since 1632 Freiherr von) Couriers, who probably died in the Battle of Lützen in 1632. His widow Josina b. sicb again married Nicholas (baron since 1648) of Schönefeld.
From the oldest preserved land register for Peterswald, which begins in 1577 and contains entries until after 1619, we also learn the names of the Erbrichter Paul Focke from 1577 to 1584 and Lorenz Jentsch from 1584 to 1589. On April 21, 1589 Hans Georg von Sebottendorf sold the Richtergut (the tavern) to Matz Scherber for 1700 Taler with “free battles, baking, salt and brandy”. On May 27, 1596, the judge Georg Pfischl acquired around 2000 thaler. Then in 1745 this estate remained in the possession of his family. The old parish inn, belonging to the Richtergute, stood in the same place as the later, Rathaus “. In the tavern the court days or “marriages” took place, in which the land transfers were carried out, estate was negotiated and disputes settled among the inhabitants. In the tavern the judge brought the decrees of the superior authorities and state authorities to the inmates. The most important events in human life, birth, marriage and death also found their echo in the tavern. Baptisms, weddings and funeral meals were celebrated in the tavern according to ancient traditions. Here also the so-called “Tauschkenbier” was drunk, which was conditional on the local inmates after the annual commemoration of the field borders or the establishment of paths at community costs. Beer and wine had to be sourced from the rule. In addition to the tavern in Erbgericht in Peterswald still a tavern in the upper village and the “lower tavern” on the state border, the Johann Georg von Sebottendorf sold in 1601 to the Peterswald schoolmaster Hans Grahl.
After the expulsion of Protestant pastors, the Protestants were forced to renounce their Protestant faith and become Catholic again. Many did not want to do that and preferred to flee. They abandoned their estates and houses, so that their property or inheritance fell to the rule. Of course, because of the long war, the Counter-Reformation could not be carried out as rigorously as it did after the end of the war. In 1639 the church in Peterswald was set on fire by the Swedes. This probably happened on the 1st of October this year, when at this time 9000 men with several pieces and ammunition marched to Pirna. Since that time Peterswald did not have a pastor either.
Peterswald had a school as early as 1577. The schoolmaster Georg Pretschendorf, who was named this year, worked here until 1586 and then moved to Schöwald. His successor was Johann Grahl until 1594, when he took over the lower tavern. In 1598, a Kaspar Heide is called a schoolmaster. On August 30, 1607, the purchase of the Schulgütels of Melchior Pergelt for 225 Thaler. It was located between the parish and Hans Rautenstrauch and was intended for maintenance of the “guilty party”.
On May 13, 1621 happened in Peterswald the transfer of the Elector caught in Saxony and delivered to the Emperor chief judge, Count Joachim Andreas von Schlick, owner of the rule Elbogen, to the captain (Alexander Regnier) of Bleileben with 120 shooters and five horses. The train went via Usti to Prague, where on June 21, 1621, Schlick was executed first on the Old Town Square in Prague. I
In 1625 the first messenger mail between Leipzig, Dresden and Prague was set up, departing Mondays and Fridays from Dresden and Sunday and Wednesday from Prague. In their place a riding post was introduced in 1631. The ride between Peterswald and Dresden via Zehista fell to the Peterswald Postmaster.
Three horsemen were sent to Peterswald, Aussig and Welwarn, who had to forward the letters during the day and at night.
In 1631, the Saxons fell over Peterswald to Bohemia. On November 13 this year, the Elector of Saxony himself came to Bohemia. He arrived at Peterswald, where he slept, with his two regiments, and arrived in Aussig on Friday, November 14, at 3 o’clock in the afternoon. At the end of February 1632, the Saxons consumed everything and there was little food for the horses. When Wallenstein, recalled by the Emperor, had brought together a powerful army and marched north from Prague, Arnim, the Saxon commander-in-chief, ordered the retreat across Peterwald to Pirna on June 7th. The Saxons made repeated incursions to Bohemia, burnt down houses and rubble, robbed cattle and other things in Peterswald, Streckenwald and Nollendorf. As Wallenstein on 16. On November 16, 1632, at Lützen, the Imperialists did not live on the retreat in the country any better than the recently expelled Saxons. The inhabitants often fled into the remote forests of the mountains. In June 1634, the peace negotiations between the Emperor and the Elector of Saxony were resumed. When the negotiators Nikolaus Gebhard von Miltitz and Dr. med. Johann Georg Oppel traveled to Leitmeritz, they had been escorted from Peterswald by 50 horsemen. under whose protection they traveled to Aussig and Leitmeritz, where the peace negotiations began on 15 June. Nevertheless, the small border war continued. Peace did not come until 1635 in Prague on the 30th of May. On 3 June 1635 he was proclaimed in Aussig. On the retreat in the country the imperialists did not live better than the recently expelled Saxons. The inhabitants often fled into the remote forests of the mountains. In June 1634, the peace negotiations between the Emperor and the Elector of Saxony were resumed. When the negotiators Nikolaus Gebhard von Miltitz and Dr. med. Johann Georg Oppel traveled to Leitmeritz, they had been escorted from Peterswald by 50 horsemen. under whose protection they traveled to Aussig and Leitmeritz, where the peace negotiations began on 15 June. Nevertheless, the small border war continued. Peace did not come until 1635 in Prague on the 30th of May. On 3 June 1635 he was proclaimed in Aussig. On the retreat in the country the imperialists did not live better than the recently expelled Saxons. The inhabitants often fled into the remote forests of the mountains. In June 1634, the peace negotiations between the Emperor and the Elector of Saxony were resumed. When the negotiators Nikolaus Gebhard von Miltitz and Dr. med. Johann Georg Oppel traveled to Leitmeritz, they had been escorted from Peterswald by 50 horsemen. under whose protection they traveled to Aussig and Leitmeritz, where the peace negotiations began on 15 June. Nevertheless, the small border war continued. Peace did not come until 1635 in Prague on the 30th of May. On 3 June 1635 he was proclaimed in Aussig. In June 1634, the peace negotiations between the Emperor and the Elector of Saxony were resumed. When the negotiators Nikolaus Gebhard von Miltitz and Dr. med. Johann Georg Oppel traveled to Leitmeritz, they had been escorted from Peterswald by 50 horsemen. under whose protection they traveled to Aussig and Leitmeritz, where the peace negotiations began on 15 June. Nevertheless, the small border war continued. Peace did not come until 1635 in Prague on the 30th of May. On 3 June 1635 he was proclaimed in Aussig. In June 1634, the peace negotiations between the Emperor and the Elector of Saxony were resumed. When the negotiators Nikolaus Gebhard von Miltitz and Dr. med. Johann Georg Oppel traveled to Leitmeritz, they had been escorted from Peterswald by 50 horsemen. under whose protection they traveled to Aussig and Leitmeritz, where the peace negotiations began on 15 June. Nevertheless, the small border war continued. Peace did not come until 1635 in Prague on the 30th of May. On 3 June 1635 he was proclaimed in Aussig. Under their protection they traveled to Aussig and Leitmeritz, where the peace negotiations began on 15 June. Nevertheless, the small border war continued. Peace did not come until 1635 in Prague on the 30th of May. On 3 June 1635 he was proclaimed in Aussig. Under their protection they traveled to Aussig and Leitmeritz, where the peace negotiations began on 15 June. Nevertheless, the small border war continued. Peace did not come until 1635 in Prague on the 30th of May. On 3 June 1635 he was proclaimed in Aussig.
On April 26, 1639, the Swedish general Banér sent Major General Torsten Stolhanske with nine regiments to Ross and 500 servants on Peterswald to Aussig, and Banér moved after the capture of Pirna also via Peterswald to Aussig and on to Prague. After returning from Bohemia, the Swedish people of war gathered in a camp near Nollendorf, where the whole area had to supply food. Peterswald and the neighboring towns also suffered in the following years by the Swedes, because they were just on the road to Bohemia. In 1643, the corps of General Hofkirch, consisting of Electoral Saxon and Imperial regiments, marched over Peterswald to Bohemia.
On June 18, 1646, the Swedes came to Peterswald with 26 horsemen, captured the postmaster, and carried him along with all the furniture and posthorses. The postmaster was released, but the horses were not released.
The time of reconstruction after the Thirty Years’ War
Owner of the rule Schoenwald, so lord of Peterswald, was from about 1644 to 1663 Nikolaus Freiherr von Schönfeld, then his son Rudolf Wenzel Freiherr (Count since 1678) of Schönfeld until his death on 5 August 1684. He inherited his son Josef again Rudolf Graf von Schönfeld, who died childless in 1704. Heiress became his sister Maria Viktoria, married since 1706 with Count Franz Ignaz Wratislaw von Mitrowitz. After his death on February 15, 1724, the rule Schoenwald ruled his widow Maria Victoria until 1727, whereupon until 1732 her sons Josef and Franz Karl first jointly and then Franz Karl alone until his death in 1759 led the rule.
The land register for Peterswald, newly created in 1679, which was created 31 years after the end of the Thirty Years’ War, after all the villages belonging to the reign of Schoenwald had come to their land registers, tells of the suffering and tribulations that these villages had to endure. Goods are devastated, economies abandoned, houses dilapidated or burned down, all goods devalued. In the village there are sick people, war widows and orphans. Many goods were without. Buildings. There were sometimes no buyers. Franz Fejfar described in a detailed essay in the “Contributions to the Local History of the Aussig-Karbitzer District” 1929, as it looked in Peterswald after the long war.
From the land register of the year 1654 we learn that Peterswald counted 60 farmers, 19 Kaluper (field gardeners or small farmers) and 12 cottagers, together 91 residents. But there were only 63 houses inhabited and 28 uninhabited. Draft animals should be kept 105, but only 61 were present. There were 224 cows, but there were only 132, cows were 92, otherwise only one sheep, 5 pigs and 21 goats. 568 lines were tilled, 143 broke, 73 were designated as winter sowing, 208 as summer sowing. Of the cereals, mainly grain and oats were grown. From grain and oats the bread was prepared.
Peterswald was thus a farming village until the 17th century. Sons and daughters who could not find work on their father’s estate used to work as servants or day laborers. Towards the end of the 17th century, however, there are already different craftsmen: tailors, shoemakers, wagner, carpenters, blacksmiths, millers and bakers, butchers, but also merchants and carters. When the new land register was created in 1679, Christian Friedrich Püschel was a judge. Jurors were Georg Rützschel, Christoph Püschel, Martin Rützschel, Jakob Rützschel, Hans Setmacher and Geörg Umblauft. Municipalities were Geörg Wolf, Michael Rützschel, Hans Schönbach, Michel Streit.
The “courts”, namely the judge and the court jurors, were appointed by the authorities. The judge had a deputy named Vicerichter. The community elders were to be regarded as the representatives of the community. The judge Christian Friedrich Püschel had acquired the judge’s goods on 26 December 1666 for 800 shock (to 70 cruisers). His son Johann Heinrich Püschel, who took over his father’s estate on January 9, 1710, was also a postmaster. On May 2, 1745 Hans Georg Zechel bought the judge’s goods for his Eidam Hans Georg Beyl.
At the peasant uprising of the year 1680, which was suppressed by the military, also Peterswalder farmers were involved, Lorenz Kliem was among the four farmers from the circle Aussig, which were hanged in May 1680 on the Aussiger court mountains.
In 1652 the parish in Peterswald was still vacant. All residents were still Lutheran. From the reports of the Reformation Commission of 1652, it emerged that on the rule Schoenwald, 328 new converts, 146 Akatholiken (ie Protestants) and 393 had departed. When the Reformation Commission came to Schönwald and Peterswald, there was a formal uprising. The people had to be brought to reason by 120 men military. Many fled across the border.
Before 1650 belonged to Schönwalder Pfarrsprengel the branches Großliebenau, Breitenau, Oelsen, Markersbach (in Saxony), Peterswald, Bohemian Kahn and Nollendlorf. The villages in Saxony were separated in 1639.
Rudolf Köhler hat in einem Aufsatze der „Beiträge zur Heimatkunde des Aussig-Karbitzer Bezirkes“ 1927 an Hand der seit 1649 in Schönwald vorhandenen Matriken die Reihenfolge der Pfarrherren festgestellt, die im Rahmen dieses Rückblicks nicht alle aufgezählt werden können. Der erste hieß Adam Bayerweck, der bereits am 21. März 1652 starb. Nachdem im Jahre 1656 die1639 zerstörte Kirche in Schönwald wieder aufgebaut worden war, wurde auch in Peterswald die alte Kirche vom Jahre 1495 erneuert und der Patronatsherr Nikolaus Freiherr von Schönfeld stiftete zusammen mit seiner Gemahlin Josina drei Glocken. Diese Kirche stand mitten im Friedhofe und hatte vier Fenster in der Front.
In 1656, Jakob Püschel, a son of Judge Martin Püschel, was a schoolmaster in Peterswald. He died in 1671 or 1672. Since 1652 he was married to the “Virtuous and Virtuous Virgin Anna, daughter of Michl Streit, Zöllners to Peterswald”. His successor was Elias Michel, who wrote from 1672 to the annual accounts for the church to “Nahlendorf”. In the years 1688 and 1689 wrote the “Nahlendorfer church assignments” the Peterswalder schoolmaster Wenzel Kralup. He also had the organ playing in the church to Schönwald to provide, for which he got three shocks from the church treasury every year. In the fall of 1690 Elias Siegmund Michel took his place. In 1731, Johann Georg Ritschel from Böhmisch-Kahn became a schoolmaster in Peterswald after having for some time supported the old teacher as Preceptor.
The Age of Maria Theresa and Joseph II
(1740 – 1790)
In the first Silesian war, under the command of Count Rutowsky, half-brother of the king, about 20,000 men strong, the Saxons invaded Bohemia in four columns. One on the old highway over Peterswald, Arbesau in the interior of the country. On June 25, 1741 hostilities were stopped and the general return march to Saxony started.
In the Second Silesian War on August 23, 1744, led by King Frederick II of Prussia, 27 366 infantry and 12 437 riders moved into the camp between Schönwald and Peterswald, where food was requested from all over the area. At the end of August, the Prussian army began the march into the interior of the country. In the second half of the year 1745, Frederick II also defeated Saxony, which until then had been considered neutral, with war, and at the beginning of December, 19,000 Austrian troops advanced over Peterswald. Prince Charles of Lorraine took his headquarters on this train first in Peterswald and then in Aussig, while the regiments were quartered in the area. On December 25, 1745, the peace was concluded in Dresden.
In the Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) broke the Prince of Brunswick on 13 September 1756 about Berggießübel to Bohemia and beat the Austrian troops at Nollendorf back. On September 28, King Frederick also met his brother, the. Princes of Prussia, coming over Peterswald, enter the camp at Johnsdorf. After the Battle of Lobositz (October 1, 1756) Frederick also took the retreat via Peterswald.
On April 22, 1757, Frederick again advanced with an army of 30,000 to 35,000 men over the Erzgebirge in Bohemia. At Nollendorf the first battles took place with the Austrian Croats, which did not prevent the Prussians from continuing their march via Karbitz into the interior of the country. After the battle of Kolin on June 18, 1757, in which Friedrich was defeated, the retreat took place on the well-known paths over the Central and Ore Mountains, whereby the country was sucked by the fugitives even more than before. On this retreat the villages of Kninitz and Zuckmantel were set on fire by the Prussians. The year 1758 was comparatively quiet for our area and brought only billets of Austrian and allied troops. On the 4th and 5th In March, the border villages of Peterswald exchanged Austrian and Prussian prisoners of war. The border of Bohemia was relatively quiet and brought only billets of Austrian and allied troops. On the 4th and 5th of March the Austrian and Prussian prisoners of war were exchanged in the Grenzdorfe Peterswald. The border of Bohemia was then occupied by Croats. On November 16, 1758 Daun left his position at Dresden and retired on 21 November on Peterswald to Bohemia.
On Easter Sunday, April 15, 1759, Prince Henry of Prussia made an invasion of Bohemia to destroy the Austrian magazines and marched over Peterswald and Schoenwald against Aussig, Lobositz, Leitmeritz and Budin. On April 20, he started the retreat. After further fighting in Silesia, the peace was only concluded on 15 February 1763 at the hunting lodge Hubertusburg, not far from Grimma in Saxony.
During the Bavarian War of Succession 1778-79, in which Frederick II of Prussia had joined with the Saxons and fought the Austrian claims on Lower Bavaria, little was heard of warlike events except from the war, the Prussia against scouring, bulk floors, wine cellars Citizens and civil servants led. The campaign was commonly referred to as plum war or potato bustle. The Prussians were under pebbles, waiting for an opportunity to invade Peterswald. After several small battles with Austrian outposts, the Prussians occupied Peterswald on 6 August 1778 and Nollendorf on 9 August. In mid-September, the Prussians retreated from the countryside to the mountains. On September 21, a large part of the rough gun was led through Peterswald, as well as the trapped hostages from different towns and villages. On May 13, 1779, the Peace of Tetschen came about, and then the damage was done to the people caused by the Prussian invasion. After this war, Emperor Josef II traveled to northern Bohemia. On September 23 he rode from Tetschen to the Schneeberg, from there to Tyssa, Nollendorf, Peterswald, where he had a meal. After dinner he rode back to the Spitzberg near Schönwald, through Hellendorf, Gießhübel and other places to Peterswald, where he spent the night. On September 24, he took over Streckenwald, Ebersdorf in the direction of Ossegg. In later years, in the center of Peterswald, a ,, which had been inflicted on the people by the Prussian invasion. After this war, Emperor Josef II traveled to northern Bohemia. On September 23 he rode from Tetschen to the Schneeberg, from there to Tyssa, Nollendorf, Peterswald, where he had a meal. After dinner he rode back to the Spitzberg near Schönwald, through Hellendorf, Gießhübel and other places to Peterswald, where he spent the night. On September 24, he took over Streckenwald, Ebersdorf in the direction of Ossegg. In later years, in the center of Peterswald, a ,, which had been inflicted on the people by the Prussian invasion. After this war, Emperor Josef II traveled to northern Bohemia. On September 23 he rode from Tetschen to the Schneeberg, from there to Tyssa, Nollendorf, Peterswald, where he had a meal. After dinner he rode back to the Spitzberg near Schönwald, through Hellendorf, Gießhübel and other places to Peterswald, where he spent the night. On September 24, he took over Streckenwald, Ebersdorf in the direction of Ossegg. In later years, in the center of Peterswald, a ,, After dinner he rode back to the Spitzberg near Schönwald, through Hellendorf, Gießhübel and other places to Peterswald, where he spent the night. On September 24, he took over Streckenwald, Ebersdorf in the direction of Ossegg. In later years, in the center of Peterswald, a ,, After dinner he rode back to the Spitzberg near Schönwald, through Hellendorf, Gießhübel and other places to Peterswald, where he spent the night. On September 24, he took over Streckenwald, Ebersdorf in the direction of Ossegg. In later years, in the center of Peterswald, a ,,Kaiser Josef Oak “planted.
In the year 1752, a traveling post got underway between Dresden and Prague. After the treaty between the Austrian and Saxon postal administrations, concluded on 25 July 1752 on 25 July 1752, the Dresden-Prager Kutsche was to leave once a week in each direction and be maintained at communal costs. They were to be paid for their use: from Dresden his Peterswald (four miles) 211/2 groschen, to Prague 91 groschen. The post paid off so well that, according to the agreement of November 20, 1753, on January 2, 1754, a second weekly Dresden-Prague post office was set up. Amongst the post offices, Peterswald as a border station played an important role, and with the increase of the post office traffic prevailed in the inn to the post office a lively life.
The old post office in Peterswald
drawing by Franz Fejfar
On May 2, 1745, the widow of the deceased Johann Heinrich Püschel sold the judge’s estate with three other shakers to the Hans Georg Zechel from Schönwald, who bought it for his son-in-law Hans Georg Bayl for the price of 1,150 guilders. He died already in 1758, whereupon Johann Wenzel Finger married the widow of the deceased local judge and thus came into the possession of the Erbgericht. After the departure of the former postmaster Jakob Thinel he took over this position and moved after the demise of the judge Christian Schönbach (1762) before the Erbrichter. In the years 1772 to 1778 he was an officially appointed steward of the rule located in Krida Schoenwald. In 1778 he turned the postmaster’s office to his son Johann Wenzel Finger and took over the postmaster position in Königgrätz himself. The son had to take over the judge’s goods by the amount of 2342 guilders 40 3/4 Kreuzer from his step-siblings. In the land register incorporation it states, among other things, “If the landlord of the estate is not to be clothed himself, he should entertain another judge and messenger boy, who should receive 12 gulden messenger’s pay”.
In 1777 an agreement was reached whereby the stagecoach was transformed into a light diligence, but was no longer maintained on joint account. Each part took over the transport costs in its area. The twice-weekly riding equestrian Dresden-Prague remained unchanged.
Reforms under Maria Theresia and Josef II
The Empress Maria Theresa showed understanding for the liberation of the peasants from their oppressive burdens, but the nobility continued to resist their efforts. In 1771, the rulers were called upon to write Urbaria within nine months, in which the old duties of the peasants and claims of the rulers should be recorded.
In the year 1770 the patent appeared over the introduction of the house numbers, which carried out however only mostly 1771. In later years kames but in individual places, so also in Peterswald to a renumbering. In 1787, 267 houses were counted here. The place had therefore since 1654 with 91 houses increased by 176 houses, which must undoubtedly be attributed to the newly emerged in the meantime buckle and Knopfindustrie, of which will be discussed later.
The abolition of serfdom on November 1, 1781 assured the Emperor Josef II a grateful memory of the peasantry. A tax reform for which the emperor had issued a decree recording and measuring all fruitful reasons and realities in 1785, which happened in most places in 1787 (Josefin survey!), But was not carried out after his early death.
The Toleration Patent of Emperor Josef II of October 13, 1781 was of deepest after-effect. On December 20, 1781, the religious orders were abolished and from their assets the “religious fund” was formed, which was designated for the construction of new parishes. Now also Peterswald and Nollendorf 1783 first received so-called Exposituren or localities of the parish in Schoenwald. For the entry of the new pastor P. Adrian Strobach, the old rectory in Peterswald was redone. His co-operative was P. Michel fur. Both were Capuchins. Until 1790 Peterswald belonged to the Vikariate Aussig, afterwards to Teplitz. The Matriken begin 1771.
With Court Decree of October 20, 1781, Joseph II introduced compulsory schooling. Every child had to attend school. Since 1767 worked in Peterswald as a schoolmaster and cantor Johann Michel Hampe, who came from Böhmisch-Kahn. According to the new “Allgemeine Schulordnung” of 6 December 1774, the state of the school system was now more important, whereas so far the pastor had to take care of it.
After the son of Johann Michel Hampe, named Johann Georg Hampe, had already applied for the schoolmaster’s post in Peterswald in 1771, he received it in about 1785 and held it until 1802. In 1790, the school in Peterswald counted 155 school-age children, which is why the teacher still held a mate. Of the “school-age children”, only 39 percent attended school, and six percent did not attend at all. 33 percent of the children were also unable to pay school fees, which was a cruiser weekly for the lower level, one and a half cruisers for the middle level and two cruisers a week for the upper level. The teacher had difficulty collecting these cruisers at the end of the week. Until the time of Emperor Joseph, the schoolmaster had to get the weather bells.
The Scbnallen- and button manufacture
After P. Anton Nitsche, a certain Christian Hieke was the first to start making buckles in Peterswald (1757). He had cast these from tin, then from brass, then cleaned them by rubbing and filing. He also made buckles inlaid with silver. He sold the finished goods even in larger cities and markets. Soon there were also others who operated the buckle making. In addition to the buckles, one also began to pour buttons. The first to operate this industry were four brothers Schönbach. Initially, the button-makers took care of selling their wares themselves, but soon publishers of buckles and knobs found their way into the world, bringing these articles into the world.
An old Giesshäusel
“Buckle manufacturers” in the second half of the 18th century were Christian Hieke, Bernhard Hieke, Josef Ritschel, Franz Ritschel, Franz Kühnel, Josef Krahl, Franz Bernhardt, Johann Georg Bernhardt (1774), Christian Streit, Hans Hieke, Josef Kühnel, Antony Schönbach, Franz Wolf, Franz Setmacher, Franz Nitsche, Wenceslas Fairs, Georg Hieke, Franz Kriesche, Josef Löbel. Franz Ruprecht, Josef Schneider, Johann Michel Binder, Franz Schönbach, Wenzel Schoenbach, Franz Setmacher, Anton Schoenbach, Karl Schoenbach were all busy with the production of knobs. Known as button and buckle publishers in 1797 are Josef Kliem (242), Streit, Franz Kliem, Kriesche. In his topography of 1787 Schaller reports that in Peterswald Every year more than 150 hundredweight buckles and buttons are made and seduced from here to Prague, Dresden, Leipzig and other areas. It is said that producers, who often packed their goods in satchels and wheelbarrows, brought in silver money that outweighed their buckles and buttons sold for it.
In his book ” Peterswald a Hundred Years Ago ” (published in 1908), P. Anton Nitsche gives some information about the founding of the larger enterprises:
1. The metalware factory C. Kühnel was founded in 1782.
2. The metal goods factory Franz Schönbach in Peterswald 118 dates back to 1780.
Further ventures were later founded.
The period from 1790 – 1850
The time of the Napoleonic Wars and the era of the Vormärz
After the early death of Emperor Josef II, his brother Leopold took over the government, but died after only two years. From 1792 to 1835 the Emperor Franz reigned and until 1848 he was succeeded by Ferdinand the Kind.
Owner of Schoenwald, ie authority for Peterswald was Rudolf Freiherr von Hackelberg-Landau from 1793 to 1801. Office administrators were in his time Anton Franz Florian, Anton Johannes Pietschmann.
After Freiherr von Hackelberg-Landau, the rule Schoenwald bought the wine and leather wholesalers Franz and Anton Waagner in Leitmeritz. By unregulated and reckless economy, the rule fell into disrepair and was raffled on January 28, 1828 with imperial approval. The big lot won the mayor of Sibiu in Transylvania, the second lot, the estate Böhmisch-Kahn, won FX Waagner himself, who managed to regain control, but he died on February 5, 1829, only 49 years old , Wife and children were the heirs, but it went downhill with her again. It was offered for sale in 1836 and the Prague provincial advocate Likowetz bought them, but also died in 1837. The last landlord of Schönwald, to whom the Peterswalder still had to afford Robot was the reddye and wool trader Anton Balle from Zwickau. In 1848/49, the submission ceased, and the Peterswalders were freed!
The judge and mail
Johann Wenzel Finger, who had taken over the judge’s office in 1788 and at the same time was a postmaster, sold it to the kk Aerar on December 24, 1808, and from the purchase contract it could be seen that the horse stable, which lay on the street opposite the residence, had two compartments Had 12 and 6 horse stalls and that the wagon sheds were under the same roof. For Postgute belonged a little over 52 yoke properties, and in the attachment 14 useful post horses, 2 Zugochsen, 6 productive cows, 3 Postkaleschen and other are enumerated.
At that time, the new post road from Prague via Teplitz – Arbesau to the state border was completed, which had been under construction since 1803 and left the city of Aussig to the great pain of the Aussiger. It was therefore necessary to build a connecting road from Aussig to Arbesau, and when it was finished in 1817, the postman of the post office, Michael Ulbrecht, built a post house on the small hill near Arbesau, where until then the posthorses of Teplitz and Peterswald had been changed , in which until the opening of the State Railway in 1850/51 there was a lively traffic. Even more important, of course, was the traffic in Peterswald. In the 18th century, the Worschschmiede was the only one in the village. At the big wagon traffic, passing through Peterswald went, she was also much besieged. The smithy was associated with a tobacco shop, a brandy and a junk. It was said that the old Worschschmied could measure his silver money in baking bowls. A second blacksmith named Thorand, at No. 206, was less likely to attract customers.
In 1818 the Prague – Dresden transport needed 41 hours, Vienna – Dresden 80 hours. In the year 1827, Saxony and Austria came to an agreement on the preparation of a weekly two-way express mail between Prague and Dresden over Teplitz, which was able to cover the road with unprecedented speed in 20 hours! It took only 37 hours to reach Vienna.
According to one statement, the postmaster of Peterswalden held over 30 horses, employed seven servants and clerks. The surrounding farmers were obliged to make their horses available to the postmaster in case of need.
Shortly before the establishment of the new district court of the directorate in Schoenwald – the last administrator was Franz Xaver Ulrich (1821-1849) – the postmaster Wilhelm Scheibner in Peterswald in conjunction with the postmaster of Pirna from May 1, 1849 to the authorization to a Stellwagenverkehr to Passenger transport between Pirna and Teplitz granted. The departure of the Stellwagens should happen every day at seven clock by the horses of Pirnaer as well as in Teplitz by the Peterswalder postmaster. The hitching of the horses should only take place in Peterswald. The Peterswalder postmaster also had to watch over the fact that no suspicious or proscribed persons were brought in under any pretext from abroad.
New construction of the church
As the church renewed in 1657 by Nikolaus Freiherr von Schönfeld proved to be too small, a new one was built in 1793. It was built in a different place. In place of the old demolished church, a stone cross was placed in the cemetery in 1796, donated by Josef Peilbauer from the house of 192. In the elongated building, whose presbytery is rounded off, there are galleries on either side of the choir. The roof was covered with shingles. On the pyramid-shaped roof was a nine-high cross. In the superstructure of the altar, which was made entirely of stone, two pillars were erected on each side, and in between stood the statues of St. Peter and Paul. In the middle was the image of the patron saint of St. Nicholas, above it in the second structure the image of the Trinity. At the top, statues of St. Michael, St. Barbara and St. Catherine were displayed. The tabernacle was originally made of stone, but was replaced by a wooden one hundred years later (1896). The pulpit was made by the Aussiger sculptor Johann Schuster and painted by Josef Kühnel from Peterswald. This pulpit, donated by Josef Peilbauer, was replaced by a new one in 1894. Peilbauer died in 1799. This pulpit, donated by Josef Peilbauer, was replaced by a new one in 1894. Peilbauer died in 1799. This pulpit, donated by Josef Peilbauer, was replaced by a new one in 1894. Peilbauer died in 1799.
For a long time a very beautiful gravestone from the year 1805 was erected in the cemetery , which was commissioned by the kk customs collector lnguart. He represented a mother with a child and a large and small coffin. The mother Theresia lnguart was a born black, born on March 2, 1777.
The first pastor Adrian Strobach died in 1791. He was followed by Anton Gabler until 1793, Josef Zuhr from 1804 to 1821, Bernhard Grühner from 1821 to 1825, Josef Franzel from 1825 to 1856.
The successor of the school teacher Johann Georg Hampe was in 1802 his son Augustin Hampe. His employment decree states: ‘From To make them fearful of God and labor, and to make their disciples well and faithful subjects. ” In addition, Augustin Hampe was instructed to take care of his salary for his elderly father.
From 1804 to 1806 Franz Josef Klaus, a native of Schönwald, worked as a school teacher in Peterswald. His successor, Josef Mirsch, had to look after the widow of the old teacher in 1805, which obligation had already been assumed by his predecessor. In 1820 Bernhard Eichler from Sobochleben assisted him as a preceptor.
When in 1834, because of his advanced age, Mirsch was no longer able to fully attend the school service, the authority transferred him to deficient status (partial retirement). The teaching was forbidden him, only the choir and Mesnerdienst he was allowed to continue.
The school, which has now become a two-class school, was taken over by the appointed school inspector and former auxiliary teacher Augustin Michel, born in 1804. A classroom for the second class was provided by the community and provided for its heating. In 1844, the old school, a simple clay truss structure with a thatched roof, had to be demolished. In its place a stone building with a tiled roof was purchased. On October 15, 1844, the new schoolhouse was inaugurated by the episcopal vicar P. Kaufold from Groß-Tschochau. It contained on the first floor two large study rooms and at ground level the teacher’s apartment with a room for the assistant teacher. A new scouring for the Schulgütel built the community in 1861.
The economic conditions at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries
Since paper money had been introduced in Austria in 1771, the state used to cover its needs more and more with paper money. There was an inflation. The inflation began in 1799. Cereals and everything needed to eat or to get dressed started to rise and rise higher and higher every year. Speculators bought the grain everywhere. In addition, as a result of the ongoing wars with France, there were heavy taxes (military contributions, house tax, personal and class taxes …).
A special emergency year was 1805. Grain prices reached a terrible amount. Not only ten times, but eighteen times more expensive than usual, the food. In 1806, all gold and silver items had to be stamped, with 20 percent being taxed. The devaluation went on and on, until it came to the state bankruptcy on February 20, 1811. Paper and copper money was only one-fifth of its previous value. Countless families were impoverished by this state measure, especially as the price went even further. There was no traffic, trade and change were on the decline. The Bankozettel were canceled by 31 January 1812, and was led banknotes one, which were considered “Viennese currency” (1 gulden to 60 Kreuzer). The Austrian National Bank was founded and the coins were reintroduced. By the state bankruptcy of 1811 also the richest Schnaueießer and button manufacturer Hieke became almost completely poor and with it six other entrepreneurs. Only later did they recover again. In 1813 the fabrication stopped for several months.
In 1809, Peterswald for a short time hosted soldiers of the “black legion” of the Duke of Brunswick, who had formed a volunteer corps to fight against Napoleon. On May 25, 1809, the Saxons invaded Peterswald and overpowered a patrol of Captain Katte of the Free Corps. Since the Saxons did not pay the required war tax, they plundered the village, stealing and carrying away whatever they could. The Saxon government afterwards recognized the looting as a wrong and should make a substitute. The Saxons were still on Napoleon’s side.
In the war years of 1813 powerful army masses moved to Saxony and back again on the “great street of Peterswald”. Peterswald saw a variety of soldiers from all sorts of nations, friends and enemies. Uncertain misery brought the year 1813 to the place. On May 12, the Saxon King moved with his cavalry through Peterswald to Dresden. In the peace negotiations between Dresden (Napoleon) and Prague (Metternich) the envoys and couriers often rode through Peterswald. The negotiations on Prague did not lead to peace. Austria joined the alliance between Prussia and Russia and declared war on Napoleon on August 17. The allies now raised three large armies of which the main army gathered under Austrian Field Marshal Karl Philipp Prince Schwarzenberg in northern Bohemia. In Teplitz the meeting of the Emperors of Austria and Russia and of the King of Prussia took place. Napoleon was to be attacked in Saxony and the Bohemian army was to be led across the Erzgebirge in four ways. On the Peterswalder road the Russians moved. To protect the frontier, the allies had sent some companies of hunters to Peterswald, and now the inhabitants first realized what was threatening them, so that they hurried to bring their most precious possessions to safety. Some stayed in the thick forest, others went to villages less threatened by war like Raitza, Tyssa, Königswald, Eulau, Leukersdorf, Spansdorf, Ohren and others In Teplitz the meeting of the Emperors of Austria and Russia and of the King of Prussia took place. Napoleon was to be attacked in Saxony and the Bohemian army was to be led across the Erzgebirge in four ways. On the Peterswalder road the Russians moved. To protect the frontier, the allies had sent some companies of hunters to Peterswald, and now the inhabitants first realized what was threatening them, so that they hurried to bring their most precious possessions to safety. Some stayed in the thick forest, others went to villages less threatened by war like Raitza, Tyssa, Königswald, Eulau, Leukersdorf, Spansdorf, Ohren and others In Teplitz the meeting of the Emperors of Austria and Russia and the King of Prussia took place. Napoleon was to be attacked in Saxony and the Bohemian army was to be led across the Erzgebirge in four ways. On the Peterswalder road the Russians moved. To protect the frontier, the allies had sent some companies of hunters to Peterswald, and now the inhabitants first realized what was threatening them, so that they hurried to bring their most precious possessions to safety. Some stayed in the thick forest, others went to villages less threatened by war like Raitza, Tyssa, Königswald, Eulau, Leukersdorf, Spansdorf, Ohren and others Napoleon was to be attacked in Saxony and the Bohemian army was to be led across the Erzgebirge in four ways. On the Peterswalder road the Russians moved. To protect the frontier, the allies had sent some companies of hunters to Peterswald, and now the inhabitants first realized what was threatening them, so that they hurried to bring their most precious possessions to safety. Some stayed in the thick forest, others went to villages less threatened by war like Raitza, Tyssa, Königswald, Eulau, Leukersdorf, Spansdorf, Ohren and others Napoleon was to be attacked in Saxony and the Bohemian army was to be led across the Erzgebirge in four ways. On the Peterswalder road the Russians moved. To protect the frontier, the allies had sent some companies of hunters to Peterswald, and now the inhabitants first realized what was threatening them, so that they hurried to bring their most precious possessions to safety. Some stayed in the thick forest, others went to villages less threatened by war like Raitza, Tyssa, Königswald, Eulau, Leukersdorf, Spansdorf, Ohren and others
On August 22, 1813, the army of the allies at Peterswald crossed the border and moved to Hellendorf. Before the departure, the Russian soldiers gathered at the post office, where a Russian clergyman blessed the soldiers after a speech. Father Anton Nitsche described in detail the events in Peterswald when the French opposed the advancing Russians. The parades through Peterswald lasted several days.
But when Napoleon had conquered in the battle of Dresden on the 26th and 27th of August, the allies were compelled to retreat to Bohemia. Army units marched in various ways across the mountains and were to reunite in the area of Teplice. The Russian General Ostermann was ordered to move via Maxen and Dippoldiswalde to Bohemia. But Prince Eugene of Wurttemberg pointed to the great danger of freeing the enemy from the great road to Peterswald, and Ostermann, after some hesitation, responded to this proposal. In fact, General Vandamme of Napoleon had been ordered to move to Pirna and reach the road to Peterswald. His army counted 52 battalions, 29 squadrons and 80 guns. The wagon of the Russians was already on 27.August was transported to Peterswald, where he arrived in the night at 12 o’clock and was brought early to Kulm. While the Russians camped in and around Peterswald, Vandamme arrived in Hellendorf towards evening. Meanwhile Napoleon had arrived in Pirna, and then himself to penetrate to Peterswald and sent Vandamme the order to invade Bohemia and to reach the valley in front of the retreating army of the allies. Early in the morning of 29th August about 2 o’clock Vandamme set out to attack Peterswald and the position of the Russians.Under the protection of fog, the Russian guards were able to reach the valley after fierce fighting with the French had already taken place around the village. Vandamme arrived in Hellendorf towards evening. Meanwhile Napoleon had arrived in Pirna, and then himself to penetrate to Peterswald and sent Vandamme the order to invade Bohemia and to reach the valley in front of the retreating army of the allies. Early in the morning of 29th August about 2 o’clock Vandamme set out to attack Peterswald and the position of the Russians. Under the protection of fog, the Russian guards were able to reach the valley after fierce fighting with the French had already taken place around the village. Vandamme arrived in Hellendorf towards evening. Meanwhile Napoleon had arrived in Pirna, and then himself to penetrate to Peterswald and sent Vandamme the order to invade Bohemia and to reach the valley in front of the retreating army of the allies. Early in the morning of 29th August about 2 o’clock Vandamme set out to attack Peterswald and the position of the Russians. Under the protection of fog, the Russian guards were able to reach the valley after fierce fighting with the French had already taken place around the village. At about 2 o’clock in the afternoon of August, Vandamme set out to attack Peterswald and the position of the Russians. Under the protection of fog, the Russian guards were able to reach the valley after fierce fighting with the French had already taken place around the village. At about 2 o’clock in the afternoon of August, Vandamme set out to attack Peterswald and the position of the Russians. Under the protection of fog, the Russian guards were able to reach the valley after fierce fighting with the French had already taken place around the village.
Vandamme, who believed that he was pursuing a defeated enemy and was hoping to find some faint resistance, did not wait for the arrival of all his forces, but ordered his troops to attack the Russian troops who had taken positions in Priesten, who had heavy casualties. Vandamme spent the night in Kulm. The following day – it was on the 30th of August – brought a brilliant victory for the allies, to which General Kleist had contributed with his troops by his appearance at Nollendorf by stabbing the enemy in the back. More than 10,000 French, including General Vandamme, were captured. A part of the French managed a breakthrough by the Prussians near Tellnitz. Throughout the day and all night, soldiers were moving through Peterswald. A troop of stray horses took the same route, carrying Prussian soldiers with them as an abandoned estate. Now it was up to the French to pursue and exploit the victory.Peterswald saw a lot of military in the first days of September. Napoleon still intended to bypass the troops at Peterswald and endeavored to get into the Teplitz valley via Ebersdorf and Geiersberg, but he did not succeed. He gave up his plan and stayed overnight in Breitenau from 10th to 11th September and went to Nollendorf on 11th September. He then slept in the parsonage at Peterswald, whose inhabitants had fled and returned on the 12th Pirna to Dresden. On 15 September he moved again with his guards from Dresden against Bohemia, which is why on September 16, the Russians and Prussians always withdrew from position to position fighting to Vordertellnitz. In the evening Napoleon arrived at the Nollendorfer church, but as thick fog lay over the valley, so that no view was possible, he went back to Peterswald and slept there in the so-called Herrenhaus No. 7, which had been built in 1794 and Barracks was named because for a long time it had been housed in the kk Financial Intelligence Department.
At the news of the arrival of Napoleon, the Austrian Commander-in-Chief Schwarzenberg unerringly met countermeasures. On September 17, the meeting at Arbesau, which turned out victorious for the allies. The French lost about 2,000 men and another 2,000 were taken prisoner. Under Napoleon’s eyes, the French invaded again on 18 September. From his locations above Kninitz, he again checked the battle position and began the retreat. From the 18th to the 19th of September he spent the night again in Peterswald and then went to Dresden via Pirna. In early October, the troops of the allies from our area broke up, moved to Saxony and won in the three-day battle of Leipzig from 16 to 18 October, the decisive victory that forced Napoleon to return to France.
As a result of these war events, much misery had come over the inhabitants of Peterswald. Many who left their homes found them destroyed after their return. Fields, meadows, and gardens were pounded; the overripe crops, if they were still visible, had been consumed or trampled. The lightly built houses were destroyed, massive dwellings were robbed, the few remaining trusses stood like ribs in the air, from the roofs and gables the wood had been demolished, which had been used for the construction of barracks or for guard fire. If the soldiers sensed any cattle, it was irrecoverably lost. Friends and enemies did not ask who it belonged to.
After the war there was great need among the inhabitants, because only very few possessed a few livestock, because almost everything had been lost through bias or robbery. The peasants had found only empty, devastated or burned rubbish and the craftsmen had no money, since their employment had come to a complete standstill. At the beginning of October, an infectious disease occurred, which swept away many people. Everywhere sick people lay around, who had been left behind in the wounded state after passing through. Many soldiers died there, and since the cemetery could not hold all, they were buried in the field behind the cemetery on the Postgute and Pfarrgute. A stone cross recalled the resting place of the deceased soldiers and inhabitants of the village. From October 1813 until the summer of 1814, 200 inhabitants of the village fell victim to the plague, which was called “plague”.
For the everlasting remembrance of this time of illness, the community introduced the day of the feast of leprosy Fabian and Sebastian. The 20th of January was therefore a feast day for the place, at which a sermon and a ministry were held, with the request that God the Lord, at the intercession of the two saints, protect the parish of Peterswald from similar tribulations and diseases.
The church had suffered a lot of damage as well. Benches, boxes, pictures, organs, doors, which was not nails, were used for barracks and other things. Often the church served as a camp for the soldiers, then for the reception and accommodation of the wounded. From time to time the commanders had also taken up their quarters in the rectory. Only gradually was the church repaired again. In place of the old organ, which was useless, a new one was exhibited in 1818 by the brothers Feller in Königswald. A certain Josef Schneider bought a picture of Fabian and Sebastian, which was placed on the high altar on the day of the celebs. Different things were given to the church from other places as well.
In the turmoil of war, the way chapel to the Holy Trinity built in 1757 by the buckler Christian Hieke had been destroyed. In its place, Bernhard Hieke had a cross made with a picture of the Trinity (1839).
Even after the war, the distress was not eliminated immediately, it was still increased by the misadventure in 1814 and 1815, where the grain line was paid with more than 40 gulden bank notes.
The “lower tavern,” which Wenzel Hantschel had rebuilt in 1769 and honored the wagoners who, coming from Saxony and driving there, had come to the tavern, called “Black Horse,” had fallen into disrepair after the French wars became inadequate in view of the increasing traffic between Bohemia and Saxony. Therefore, his son (or grandson?) Built a large house opposite a dance hall and moved the host business there. (later Püschels metal button factory).
The “lower tavern” was well known by the name Kastanienhof. Franz Fejfar wrote in the Aussiger home calendar for 1959 the history of the house and added a picture.
The war year of 1813 brought with it a serious disruption of all economic life and the button and buckle industry so important to Peterswald. In the next few years, however, the place recovered and in 1832 it had 375 houses with 2242 inhabitants on *). In 1787 there were only 267 houses with about 1600 inhabitants. So, since that year , Peterswald has had an increase of 108 houses.
The button and buckle industry continued to expand, especially in the 19th century. In addition to pewter buttons appear glove buttons in all shapes and sizes, collar buttons, decorative cuffs for dresses and caps, for example, Anker, Adler, etc. The metal foundry and yellow foundry made the most diverse components for harnesses, for saddlery, etc. Some operated the metal industry more on a smaller scale than home industry, others produced large enterprises, first used hydropower and, in the second half of the nineteenth century, steam power, set up a wide range of machines, produced new patterns and, for many articles and machines, acquired the same as HC Kühnel on ferrules and plaques , Fittings for umbrellas and poles; HW Wolf on ladies’ flower buttons, Shoe buttons, shoe closures; H. Haase on uniform buttons; Franz and Anton Schönbach 118 on fancy buttons, pressure and sewing buttons, metal filters and smaller metal goods, as well as washing buttons and collar buttons (Hellendorf); H. August Wolf produced castings for saddlers and upholsterers and wallpapering nails; Ernst Luis Gottschall in Hungertuch metal ferrules and umbrella parts.
Apart from Austria-Hungary, the export of the goods went to Germany, England, Russia, Romania, Turkey, India, China, America, Australia, the South Sea Islands, and others. How individual enterprises developed even further should be told.
In Peterswald and Tyssa, where the financial guardians were based, smuggling was the first priority. As a border village Peterswald had since ancient times a customs office. In the year 1770 the municipality left the so-called customs house of the rule commercially for 62 Gulden Rhenish. It was inhabited by the tax collector. A kk Nebenzollamt was at the bottom of the village with a law firm for a royal Saxon customs officer and a department of the kk financial guard.
ÜThe historian of Schwaden, Anton Tscherney, also talks about steams in his book: When goods from Pirna and Koenigstein went to Leitmeritz and Prague, they often passed steam, because the Paschers were covered after reaching the right bank of the Elbe. The Pascherwege from the border at Peterswald led through the Holzgrund (Oberkönigswald) or via Kninitz to the Elbe. Already in the 17th century smugglers Saxon salt. Then came tobacco in the fashion, of course, cigars and snuff, as well as coffee, sugar, liqueurs, saffron, silk, woolen and other.These mentioned articles were transported by Saxon big wearers to the border to Hellendorf near Peterswald or Rosenthal near Tyssa. With the wearers, the Pascherherren sat down in agreement for which a successful trade was very profitable. This was helped by the golden donkey, who was not too scorned by the border commissars. Sometimes the commissary got a whole cap full of Speziesthaler. After such a bribe, the frontier guards did not see how half Peterswald, even children, got on their feet to carry the goods from Hellendorf in detail and keep them in their homes and chafing until the arrival of the Pascher. Since the construction of the state railway from 1847 to 1850/51, the cullet trade almost abruptly stopped, although later on many things were patched. After such a bribe, the frontier guards did not see how half Peterswald, even children, got on their feet to carry the goods from Hellendorf in detail and keep them in their homes and chafing until the arrival of the Pascher. Since the construction of the state railway from 1847 to 1850/51, the cullet trade almost abruptly stopped, although later on many things were patched. After such a bribe, the frontier guards did not see how half Peterswald, even children, got on their feet to carry the goods from Hellendorf in detail and keep them in their homes and chafing until the arrival of the Pascher. Since the construction of the state railway from 1847 to 1850/51, the cullet trade almost abruptly stopped, although later on many things were patched.
The year 1848
Before 1848, the sentence was: “Rest is the first civic duty”. Through a police and spying system of the Metternich era of the “Vormärz”, the citizens of the cities and even more of the peasant population were made impossible any political activity. After the Vienna Revolution in March and June in Prague, there was much talk in our area of freedom, freedom of the press, freedom of choice, constitution, namely participation of the people in the government, parliament, freedom of association and arming of the people. The popular uprisings in Vienna and Prague were probably suppressed by the military, but saw the Emperor Ferdinand forced to concessions. A Reichstag was called to Vienna, but soon had to relocate its seat to Kremsier.Many hopes were not fulfilled, but the abolition of subservience and Robot, which was decided on the application of Hans Kudlich on September 7, 1848 from the Reichstag and sanctioned by the Emperor on March 4, 1849, formed an important achievement. The settlements became, as it were said, ‘free’, that is, they no longer belonged to the landlord, the estate and their bailiff, in terms of money and labor or in the administration of justice and legal protection, but the state and the kk officials ,
The guidelines for the basic design were already given by the patent of 4 March 1849. Replaced were the robots, the royalties, the base interest for community reasons, the charges to the pastor and the teacher. The purchase of beer from the stately breweries was also considered detached. Hunting law, which up to now had exercised dominion over peasant reasons, now fell to the communities themselves.
The political reorganization of the country could, of course, only be carried out after overcoming all sorts of difficulties in 1850. The villages belonging to the rule Schönwald were assigned to the political districts Aussig and the judicial districts Karbitz. At the head of the community was now also in Peterswald in place of the former judge of the “chief”, who was subordinate to the district captain in Aussig. The election of the head of the parish was done according to the new electoral law, which provided for three electoral bodies. First head in Peterswald was …?
The National Guard
Among the concessions that were made to the population in Vienna as a result of the March revolution included the arming of the people. The zeal for this thing was very great. On the basis of the “provisional” statute on the organization of the National Guard of 18 May 1848, national guards were formed in all major towns. Its real task was the protection of the constitutional prince, protection of the constitution and laws, the preservation of peace and order within the interior, the preservation of the independence and integrity of the whole state, and the defense against any hostile attack from without. All citizens from the age of 19 to 50 years were obliged to live in their permanent place of residence.
Also in Peterswald a national guard was established, whose flag consecration took place on 10 September 1848. The former chaplain P. Locke, who later became pastor in Tyssa, held the ceremonial address. The draft for his speech has survived and was reprinted by Julius Weckend in Tyssa in 1927 in the “Contributions to the History of the Aussig-Karbitzer District”. To put the readers of this historical retrospective back in the spirit of those days, this speech is printed here:
Brothers, like never before, the sun meets us today, decorated and equipped! We celebrate a celebration in which your and my breast are full of joy and no heart of our friendly mountain village without concern. Yes, even worthy comrades as most welcome guests take part, because to whom this unprecedented and certainly long time non-recurring celebration is no longer unknown. Dedicated to the priest’s hand, entrusted with the blessing of heaven, the object of our feast rests in the Hand of our revered commander. It is our flag, an inanimate thing indeed, but meaningful and verbose is its solemn rush. It calls us three things: “Look into the past, protect the present and prepare you for the future!”
The gaze, my brothers, in the time of our ancestors as well as in that which we still experienced, is truly not the most enjoyable. Could I raise them, the rotten bones of our ancestors, they would tell us what they endure in the days of serfdom. The one who was her master, who gave it to everyone else in the law of fist. Everything they possessed, and when they won it ten times with their sweat, they possessed as a gift, as a favor of the authorities. Grace was the straw upon which the ancestor lay, Grace the breadcrumb that he chewed in sweat for the lord of the castle in the midst of the sheaves.
It was right, on the other hand, to sleep on feather down in the castle, dressed in silk to lead the foaming cup to his mouth. In short, the castle was shining in the bright sunshine, the mud hut in the valley was oppressed by the fog. And if you ask what has been done for the spiritual training of our ancestors, I must answer you: as much as nothing, since stupidity was almost a principle. His will was the order of the castle, his paymaster was the disciplinarian, the castle-groom. And for all that, he had to kiss the gracious lord of the castle’s hand.
Under what pressures, therefore, did our ancestors live, deprived of the common human rights that the benevolent Creator has commanded every human being to enjoy. But the too tense string had to tear apart, the smoldering sense of right struck over time to the bright flame and shone especially on the throne of Emperor Josef II. It was reserved for him to create in the crypt of slavery also the tranquility of serfdom, and instead to invoke submission to life. But this too had its dark side, its humanizing fetters. We carried them ourselves until 15 March under a strict monarchical government. In the bond of obedience we had only blindly to obey laws, to give taxes, without being allowed to ask: Why? For what? What for? Where is the ID?
The Robot, instead of mitigating it, was screwed up even more! Should not even the trader in the year of need 1846 tame the fig leaf of his nakedness as it were? What should I say about the administration of justice! Where did the most just complaints have to go? Who made the decision too often on the Dare of Justice? Who held the highest honors in civil and military with few exceptions? Who usually had the job, who the honor of the office? Who usually carried and straddled the sword, who carried the rifle? To answer that, my brothers, is not difficult!
Completed by foreign countries, which breathed far more freely, we were forced, prevented from completing our trade. Foreigners became our factory owners, we their workers and servants. That was about the most ignominious state of our submission. It had to be different here, too. With the year 1848 began the spiritual migration of peoples, the flood of the one thought that Europe’s peoples, no more children, are tired of the ribbon of goose! It hit the borders, indeed the walls of Austria. With the dawn of the 13th of March, the subjects’ bonds of the Viennese rattled and the reputation did not strike the Prague as yet unprepared. Metternich, Austria’s pharaoh, who thought himself almighty, had to flee; the kindly Emperor Ferdinand gave the constitution, that is, co-governing the people! From this tree of freedom,
Already we have our Reich Deputies to Vienna in only one chamber, a work of 18 May. The power of the nobility is broken! Ministers must give us an account of their actions. The current Finance Minister Kraus himself says: “I do my work as if I were sitting in a glasshouse.” The word “subject” has already been deleted, free citizen is the peasant as the city dweller, the rich as the poor. None of us will ever go to the Robot nor drive, but pay a very cheap compensation. We hear every word spoken at the Reichstag. Free and unhindered at every hour, we can unite, talk and inform the Deputies of what is close to our hearts. We receive sovereign courts and before these and their barriers the nobleman and clergyman must appear as good as you! Law must be the oppressed, otherwise our complaints would come to the public. Only the suitable person can henceforth obtain office and the rich and poor son of the fatherland must become a soldier. It is open to foreign countries, it is freedom to teach and learn, the tariff barriers may have been standing longest.
That, my brethren, is the well-understood freedom of the Emperor’s hand. These are the rights which Vienna and Prague’s brothers have wrested from our enemies’ hands, that is the present to which the noise of the flag reminds us. And to preserve these, if necessary to fight for them, get ready! The structure of the state constitution has not yet been drafted, much less joined, and as long as the constitution deed is not on the table of the Reichstag, our conditions are still unstable. Enemies, both high and low, are trying to get us back into the old government glee. Republican scurries, who no longer want to know anything about the imperial family or the nobility, actually people who have nothing to lose, seek to exploit the vacillating conditions of the empire. The welfare of the people is on their lips, a ministry in the heart. It is time for the prudent citizen to stand up for law and order. Already 300,000 free citizens are already prepared as national guards. A spirit animates her. Flags are blowing, bayonets flashing akin to each other. We also belong to these free citizens!
Could we line up to take up arms? Do we want to let our grandchildren say, our fathers were blind to the spirit, lame, brest in body and soul, cowards, cowardly traitors of their rights in hand? Further, as we, like the earth and the stars above us, gather around the sun, so we gather and gather for our flag as our sun! Your sight should always warm us with the deepest love for the Supreme Lord, to whom the head of our flag points. Warming with unbreakable fidelity to the emperor and the fatherland, that’s what their red indicates. It should inspire us for justice, truth, order and duty, and make us glow in dangers to our and our lives and property! Let us blush before every crime, and be offended by obvious arbitrariness and screaming injustice!
Woe also to the one who dares to attack these goods with a disgusting hand and is deaf to serious reprimand. Blood flows also, because even that indicates red. And if we fall as a victim, we want to watch over these goods, like the eagle with its two heads as a symbol of vigilance! Alone forgiven, the magnet of our flag acts on us, if the love in the brother heart is missing, if not everyone stands up for his brother’s goods, freedom, honor, life and property, one for all, all for one! Honor and fame of the individual is honor and glory of the whole guard, is laurel of our flag. Shame on the part of the individual is disgrace for the whole corps, is filth and insult to the flag. Therefore be pure, and, like the white of the flag, remain the hand of the guardsman! ”
On October 1, 1848, the National Guards from the entire area gathered for the national flag’s flag-blessing in Aussig. It was drilled, maneuvered and pokuliert! The glory of the National Guard did not last long. Already on August 27, 1851 decreed the district team in Aussig due to a higher order the dissolution of the National Guard. Rifles, bayonets, banners and drums had to be handed over to the Disarmament Commission. The National Guards had ceased singing and singing. The Vienna government was already in December of 1848, after Ferdinand’s Emperor Franz Josef had ascended the throne in place of Ferdinand’s Emperor, on 2 December of this year, unwilling to accept the draft constitution of the Reichstag under any circumstances. By the so-called “imposed” constitution of 4.
The Age of Emperor Franz Josef I
(1848 – 1918)
In reorganizing the political administration, Peterswald tried to obtain even a district court, which did not succeed. The way to the superior political authority was thus further than before 1850 to the stately office in Schoenwald, only the way to the district court and tax office in Karbitz was a little closer than Aussig. After the establishment of the gendarmerie in 1850 Peterswald received two gendarmes. Due to the imminent threat of war, our area also received a military accommodation in 1850, and it was generally welcomed when the troops returned to their permanent quarters.
In 1850 Peterswald was declared a market town and got two fairs: first, on Monday before St. John of Nepomuck, secondly, fourteen days before the church.
After the opening of the State Railway Prague – Dresden on April 6, 1851, the Poststraße over Peterswald, which was formerly the shortest route from Dresden to Prague and Vienna, had lost their significance. As long as the railway went from October 1, 1850 to April 6, 1851 only to Aussig, the travelers had to use the mail van from Aussig via Arbesau to Peterswald and Pirna, but then the carriage traffic on the “big road” became smaller and smaller. The post office naturally used the railway. So we hear that the stables and carriages of the post office were demolished in Peterswald. Under the Postlinde, where previously tables and benches were set up for the travelers, only a few foreigners came. On March 31, 1860 sold the kk Aerar the Richtergut or mail of the community Peterswald for 10 347 guilders, 26 Kreuzer Austrian currency, including the expedition building No. 2. From the community this house took over the postmaster lgnaz Mainl on 16 January 1883. After his death, it changed the owners. A later new building housed the pharmacy.
In 1868 the parish inn – the former post office – was demolished. In the same year, the “Town Hall” was built. The attached stable building with the upstairs living rooms was demolished in 1881.
The pharmacy was founded in 1874 by Magister Stolz. In 1876, a doctor settled down and when in 1888 medical districts were created, Peterswald formed an independent medical community.
Peterwald counted 430 houses and 2613 inhabitants in 1887, so around 1832 there was an increase of 55 houses. The basic complex of the municipality was 1887 1991 acres 32 ar.
During the fratricidal war between Austria and Prussia in 1866, there were no military actions in our area, but at the end of June this year Peterswald saw the Saxon troops march through to join the Austrian Northern Army. On July 13, a whole Prussian Landwehr Corps slept in Peterswald and marched in the morning over Nollendorf into the valley. The return of the Prussian army began in the second half of August.
Church and school in the era of Emperor Franz Josef
After the aforementioned pastor Josef Franzel, who worked in Peterswald from 1825 to 1856, Josef Hille followed from 1856 to 1878, then Jakob Knechtel until 1882. He died in 1907 in Mariaschein. Johann Pleschke, his successor until 1888, died in Georgswalde in 1898. Josef Hille, pastor from 1889 to 1896, retired in Kaaden. The pastor Alois Skliba was granted from 1895 to 1932 a long time of his work in Peterswald. In 1904 the church tower was built up.
Significant was the development of the school system. On May 1, 1852 Franz Tischer took office as a teacher and director of the two-class parish school. As a diligent school man he was eager for his education. In 1868 he took part in an agricultural course at the College of Agricultural Sciences in Vienna. For the improvement of beekeeping and fruit-growing in Peterswald he contributed much by instruction and example. His achievements in church music were commendable. He led the singing association “Liedertafel” until shortly before his death. 1862/63, the school dreiklassig. Under the new Volksschulgesetz of 1869, compulsory education, which had been only six years, was extended to eight years. In November 1870, Franz Tischer became senior teacher. In 1878 the school became four-class and in 1879 five-class, and the trained village Neuhof received an Expositur. In 1878, the community had an extension to the existing school run. Senior teacher Tischer died on August 31, 1886.
As headmaster worked after him A. Krehan and Anton Klöpsch. In 1897 Franz Fejfar became a senior teacher in Peterswald, after he had been teaching in the field of examinations in Neuhof since 1883. In 1902 he founded the commercial education school. In 1905/06, the large schoolhouse was built for a Volksschule and Bürgerschule and opened in 1906. From 1903 to 1913 Peterswald also had a winter expo in Antonstal, where lessons were taught from 15 November to 15 March, three days a week. Since 1913 the children of Antonstal visited the school in Tyssa. In 1907, Franz Fejfar became the first director of the public school, which opened in 1907. In 1924 he retired after 41 years of service in Peterswald was meritorious. Born on December 17, 1863 in Benadek, he died on May 23, 1936 in Pockau near Aussig, where in the years of his retirement he dealt extensively with the history of Peterswald. Among other things, he has begun the extensive land registers for Peterswald from 1577 and 1678, worked through and found ownership of each house. He has provided several contributions to the history of Peterswald for the Aussiger homeland publications. From 1924 to 1945 Josef Karger was director of the Volksschule and Bürgerschule.
From club life
Of economic importance was founded in 1869 and on November 8, 1870 officially approved “Erzgebirge savings and Vorschußverein”, the savings and advance fund in Peterswald.
In 1874, the founding of the workers’ education association falls, which in 1879 counted 177 and 1880 188 members and in addition to the idealistic tasks for training also the material support of its members aimed. Wilhelm Kriesche was mainly active in the labor movement in Peterswald.
The volunteer fire department was founded in 1876. In 1904, a steam sprayer was purchased. Firefighters were Franz Wolf 297, Eduard Kliem 333, Josef Schönbach 474. Fire Brigade Inspector Franz Wolf 297.
In 1878, as in other places, a school cruiser association was created in Peterswald.
In 1879, the Friends of Song and Music found themselves together as a singing and music club. In the course of time, two more singing clubs were founded.
The former soldiers formed a military veterans’ association, which set itself the goal of caring for comradeship, founded a death fund and on festive occasions, especially on the patriotic days of remembrance, issued.
After the German School Association was founded in 1880, already in 1883 a local group of this Schutzverein was formed in Peterswald.
In addition to the “Agricultural and Forestry District Association”, which set itself the professional and economic promotion of the peasantry and its headquarters in Aussig, numerous associations, which sought to disseminate agricultural knowledge in the ranks of its members, also in 1886 in Peter forest.
In addition to the gymnastics club founded in 1889, two other gymnastics clubs joined in the course of the years.
The Arbeiter-Konsumverein, founded in 1891 in Peterswald, was one of the district’s first cooperatives.
The metal goods factory Anton Franz Schönbach, whose inventory went back to 1780, was enlarged in 1880; Also in Hellendorf a smaller company was established. In 1901, the buildings belonging to a Mr. Adler were bought. In 1903 a new building was listed and in 1906 the Griesbach mill in Hellendorf was purchased and furnished for the make. Franz Schönbach died in 1902. His sons Franz and Anton continued the work.
The metal goods factory C. Kühnel, founded in 1782, was enlarged in 1871. From 1877 to 1882 H. Kühnel was in hunger, from 1882 in the Storchmühle No. 146, which was rebuilt and enlarged. In the nineties, a factory in Königswald was built by him, but due to lack of skilled workers and sales difficulties had to be abandoned. Until 1918, the production mainly for export, umbrella and pole fittings and wallpaper nails.
The company Aug. Wolf & Sohn founded in 1840 by the brothers Franz and Josef Wolf in 1840, produced saddlery such as rosettes and buckles, but then also made of cast brass. The goods were brought to Prague, Brno, Pilsen and elsewhere on the market. Initially, the brothers processed only the raw casts made with their molds, later a separate foundry was added.Since 1863 the company was under the company August Wolf & Sohn. In 1899, the company moved to the former velvet factory van der Becke. It flourished in the period from 1906 to 1912, during which more than 300 workers were permanently employed. At that time, snaps were produced, but also anchor, surface and celluloid buttons. In 1917, Franz Hiebsch, a nephew of August Wolf, became the sole owner of the factory.
The company C. Hoffmann in Peterswald-Hungertuch emerged in 1880 from the company C. Kühnel & Co. The partner Ernst Louis Gottschald in Dresden took over the business in Hungertuch as an independent company. Since 1890 it was continued by the Richard Dittmayer and Gustav Hoffmann from Dresden under the company name “EL Gottschald successor” and 1907 taken over by C. Hoffmann alone. The company burned down twice, but was always rebuilt in a timely manner. Umbrella and stick components were made from the beginning, later glove buttons, whose production had already been abandoned by Gottschald.
The button factory Franz Haase, founded in 1884, produced metal buttons of all kinds, initially also agraffen for the glove industry. In 1903 a new factory building was built.
The button factory Josef Haase started producing in 1891, leased the factory of Eduard Schönbach in 1900 and 1901 and then built his own factory. The founding of Wenzel Wolf dates back to 1901. Since 1918 Franz Wolf has been the owner. First of all, shoe toes, upholstery nails and glove clasps were mainly produced, later production for women’s and boys’ clothing was extended.
The metal goods factory “Püschelmühle” was founded at the beginning of the eighties of the 19th century in the mill no. 77 by F. Püschel as Blechdessinieranstalt. In 1903 the button production was started. In the years before the First World War, the company was doing very well, but with the outbreak of war came almost a complete stoppage, since the company had worked primarily for export to Russia. The existing raw materials were still processed, in the army deliveries, the company almost did not participate.
Smaller companies were the enterprises of Ferdinand Schönbach, Franz Löbel.
After 1900, the Peterswald industry had the biggest upswing. The weaving business subsided. Before the year 1900 the velvet weaving in Peterswald played a role and was mainly operated by cottagers. In 1890 more than 500 velvet looms were cut in the village, producing more than 150,000 meters of velvet per month. Also factories of this branch already existed in the middle of the seventies. The oldest was that of Josef Laubenstein, which belonged to Gustav Klier in 1890. In addition, there was a silk and velvet factory JFA van der Becke and the sheep wool, cotton and silk weaving mill of Josef Ruprecht. However, this branch of industry could not assert itself and disappeared before the First World War from the community.
The industry brought prosperity to the community. The shops were excellent and the farmers were able to sell their products well. It also started a brisk construction activity. During this time, the “Messendörfel” and the “Nazseffdörfel” and many other houses were built. From 1912 to 1913 Wolf & Sohn was substantially enlarged. All companies had a good course of business.
From 1912 onwards, Peterwald was supplied with electricity from the power plant in Pirna, which not only benefited the domestic industry, which had to move its machines by water or steam power and now could work more efficiently with electric motors, including the five-kilometer-long town got a street lighting.
A disadvantage for the industry in Peterswald was the long distance from the railway stations Königswald and Tellnitz on Bömischer and Gottleuba on the Saxon side. In 1891, a committee met in Aussig, which wanted to bring about a rail link between Aussig and the Erzgebirge. In 1893, the railway project was approved by the Ministry in Vienna, but the plan failed because the Saxon government did not allow the extension of the line from Peterswald to Gottleuba or Langhennersdorf. One of the men who sought to establish a rail link with Aussig was Franz Fejfar.
Through the “Kaiserstraße” the connection with Teplitz was almost cheaper than with Aussig. It got better when the electric tram was expanded in 1912 to Tellnitz.
The effects of the First World War from 1914 to 1918 made no less sense in Peterswald than in other places. The industry was mostly dependent on exports, and the war tore up these trade relations. Workers were called to arms, material difficulties occurred, operations came to a halt, employees and workers lost their posts. Also the industrial estate came in emergency, since the demand was restricted everywhere. By and by there were food and commodities only on cards and in 1917, the general distress was particularly large. It would take too much to enumerate all the needs of war. And the blood sacrifices were painful. The First World War claimed 98 victims in Peterswald,
In the Czechoslovak Republic
(1918 – 1938)
After the end of the First World War, the Sudeten Germans hoped that they, too, would receive the right of self-determination promised by the President of the United States to all peoples, but all their efforts were in vain. Even before the peace was concluded, the Czechs occupied the German territories. On the morning of December 11, the Czech military moved into the city of Aussig, and on December 17, the Czechs took over the district team Aussig. The imperial double-headed eagle were taken off – also in Peterswald.
In June 1919, the first municipal elections took place according to universal, equal and direct suffrage. Heads in Peterswald were from 1919 to 1938: Josef Karger 1919-1923, Anton Kühnel No. 174 1923-1931, Josef Körtel No. 231 1931-1938, Max Wolf 1938-1945.
On April 18, 1920 elections took place in the Prague Parliament and eight days later in the Senate.
According to the official census of 12 February 1921, the Katastralgemeinde Peterswald had a base area of 1991 hectares, 554 houses, 743 residential parties, 2757 inhabitants, of which 1253 male, 1504 female, 2700 Germans, 26 Czechs, 26 foreigners, 2721 Catholics, 34 Protestants , 1 Other Believers, 1 Unaffiliated.
The place Peterswald alone had 512 houses, 691 residential parties, 2560 inhabitants, 1172 male, 1388 female, 2509 Germans, 26 Czechs, 25 foreigners, 2526 Catholics, 33 Protestants, 1 dissenters.
Antonstal, lying on rural Peterswalder reason, was settled since 1873 and had 1887 nine houses with 55 inhabitants. In 1875 it was eingepfarrt to Tyssa, 1879 also enrolled there, but since 1880 retrained to Peterswald. Until 1932, a house was added.
In the neighboring Jungferndorf, the first houses were built between 1802 and 1808 and inhabited by woodcutters, weavers and button workers from Peterswald.
The first construction sites of Neuhof were awarded in 1822 to “familiar subjects” of the rule Schönwald. The transfer of construction sites was confirmed in 1824 by the Lieutenancy. They were located near the village of Raiza, which belonged to the Chechen domination, on a pasture that belonged to the Meierhof Hungertuch and bore the name Bienhof.
In 1932 Neuhof had 32 houses and 143 inhabitants on the Saxon border.
In 1932 Peterswald had 555 houses and 2559 inhabitants.
The district Hungertuch at the lower end of Peterswald originated on the grounds of a Meierhof, whose fields were expropriated by the land reform and sold to small farmers. The part of the forest belonging to Hungertuch acquired the community Peterswald. Until the soil expropriation fields, meadows and forest belonged to the rule Schönwald, also the fields around Neuhof.The reign remained only a ruin, the so-called sheep pen. This can not have originally been built as a sheepfold, as the building was executed in the Gothic style. As late as 1913, a few windows and pointed arch vaults were preserved. The rule let the ruin break off except for a few remains of the wall and sold the stones as building material.
In place of the Meierhof were the numbers 90, 91, 92, 93, of which 90 and 91 belonged to the metal goods factory of Kurt Hoffmann, No. 92 was the old sheepfold and 93 the Hungertuch farm. The extent of the Meierhof was 360 yokes. In 1726 Viktoria, widowed Countess Wratislaw, sold to her subject Christian Kühnel the “imperial Hungertucher Mahl- und Brettmühle” along with meadows and land around 300 guilders in Rhineland. This mill had the old number 67 and received renumbering the numbers 90 and 91 and was purchased by C. Kühnel and Gottschalk and converted into a metal goods factory, 1933 company Kurt Hoffmann. The buildings 92 and 93 remained in the possession of the rule. The house 93 probably served the Schaffer of the Meierhof as an apartment, 92 was not finished.
With permission of the district office Leitmeritz of 30 September 1822 the Schönwalder rule was permitted, in the proximity of the village Raiza “to familiar subjects” some building sites from the Meierhof hunger cloth to leave. These construction sites formed a “useless Hutweidegrund” under the name “Bienhof”. (This name already appears in the oldest land registry of the parish of Peterswald from the year 1577.) The settlement on the Hungertucher Bienhof was given the name “Neuhof” with its own numbering. The Meierhof Hungertuch remained until the expropriation by the land reform in possession of the rule and was rented by the lot. The field names are still reminiscent of the old Meierhof: farm fields, stately pines in the manorial domain, the sheep barn.
On the political attitude of the inhabitants of Peterswald informed the vote in the elections to the Prague House of Representatives in 1925. Of the votes cast in 1521 accounted for: the Social Democrats 475, the Confederation of farmers 358, the Communists 209, the German The National Party 181, the Christian Socialists 148, the German National Socialists 133, the Czech National Democrats 9, the Czech National Socialists 3, the Czech Social Democrats 2, Czech Christian Social 2, the Czech National Workers Party 1 (17 Czech votes from the Czech state employees! )
After the First World War, the industry in Peterswald fell sharply, and the population also declined because many were looking for work elsewhere. Shoe eyelets and snaps were made in other places in large companies on machines, the remaining items were not enough. Later came then celluloid buttons and Filigranknöpfe, which gave temporary employment. It only became good again when you started to create zippers.
The zipper came with the company Hans Dittmayer, which developed into the largest company in the village, to Peterswald. Further factories were: Franz Löbel 260, Franz Schönbach, August Haase, Wenzel Wolf, Hans Dittmayer & Co., Josef Haase, August Wolf & Sohn, C. Kühnel, Josef Krahl, Julius Rauchfuß, Karl Kühnel 61, Gustav Körtel, Rudolf Püschel , Franz Haase, Hoffmann- Hungertuch and Fritsche-Neuhof.
As a result of the economic crisis of the years 1929 to 1932/33 several enterprises had to cease their operation, so Anton Kühnel, Wenzel Wolf, Franz Schönbach, Kurt Hoffmann. Several companies were so heavily in debt and then pulled the savings and Vorschußkassenverein affected, so that in 1935 this had to close the switch. The depositors had to give up some of their deposits and the shareholders, especially the board members, had to follow suit. This has caused much economic damage. The financial institution became a branch of the General People’s Credit Institution in Prague.
Post and traffic
The post and telegraph office (this was already established in 1894) was staffed by several Czech officials. For Postsprengel belonged except Peterswald the places Jungferndorf, Nollendorf, Oberwald, Neuhof and Hungertuch.
The first bus line was established in 1921 between Peterswald and Gottleuba. Later there was added a bus line Karbitz – Königswald – Peterswald. From Gottleuba you could also continue to Dresden.
Church and school
Under the pastor Alois Skliba two bells were removed in the war year 1917, which were replaced by a steel bell, which was made in the Karbitzer cast steel hut.
The successor of the priest Skliba was from 1 November 1932 to Johann Stiel, who remained until April 30, 1942 in Peterswald and then archdealer in Aussig. At the time of his inauguration on May 28, 1933 three new bells were inaugurated , which were supplied by the company Herold in Komotau. Their price was about 30 000 Kc with additional expenses.Since the collection for the bells a higher amount was achieved, could still be purchased an electric organ motor. Pastor Stiel also provided for the purchase of painted stained glass windows, new statues and the construction of a small frontage at the side entrance to the church.
An old custom was the Easter riding on Easter Sunday morning.
In 1918, the Volksschule and Bürgerschule in Peterswald had 10 classes; In 1925 there were only 9 classes left. From 1924 to 1945 Josef Karger was the director of the Volksschule and Bürgerschule.
The club life
After the overthrow in 1918, the military veterans’ club, which had to be de-Austrianized, changed its name to Kameradschaftsverein served soldiers. The other clubs continued to exist, about 1922, the rural youth was in the “League of rural youth” together. A lay playgroup found a zealous theater audience. A cinema was set up in the mailroom. A brass and string band under the direction of the Kapellmeister Eduard Kliem and later his son Franz Kliem, had to show considerable achievements. She played in an old Austrian Johann Strauss uniform often in Dresden, Pirna, Bautzen and other cities of Saxony in famous concert halls, such as the Gewerbehaus in Dresden.
Firefighters were from 1926 – 1929 Ernst Ritschel, Karl Wolf 439 1929 – 1936, after Franz Schönbach 326 and Alwin Schönbach. Fire Inspector: Karl Wolf 1929 – 1938. The 1931 procured engine syringe was a gift from the Savings and Advance Fund Peterswald.
In 1934 a football pitch was built in the Oberdorfe, which became increasingly popular. On July 31, 1936, the transfer of the Olympic torch, which took its way from Olympus in Greece to Berlin for the Berlin Olympics, took place in Peterswald on the state border, to Reichsdeutsche runners, which had attracted many spectators to Peterswald.
The upper community pond was expanded to a swimming pool and found in the summer months a lot of encouragement. Evenings were held in the newly built restaurant and dance events.
The year 1938
On May 1, 1938, the Sudeten Germans campaigned for the demands of the Sudeten German Party in huge popular rallies, as they were not there in our homeland. 70 000 people gathered in the Aussiger marketplaces. 850 men had come in the pouring rain from Peterswald, just as many from Schoenwald, to call only a little distant places of the Aussiger district. Konrad Henlein, the keynote speaker of the day, emphasized in his speech the living right of the German ethnic group, which demands full equality in the state.
In the municipal elections on May 29, 1938 1862 votes were cast in Peterswald. Of these, the Sudeten German Party had 1684 votes (27 seats), the Communists 114 votes (2 seats), and the Czech National Socialists 64 votes (1 seat).
On the occasion of the first Czech mobilization on May 21, 1938, the road to Saxony was barricaded at the customs office in Peterswald with cars loaded with manure, stones and field equipment. The gendarmerie had a ban on going out after 8 pm. The whole place and the border were occupied by the so-called border guard (dressed communists). No one was allowed on the fields, so that the field work faltered. The dirt roads were made impassable by deep trenches up to three meters deep. Stone barricades were built on the border. Arbeitsiose Volksgenossen were forced to cooperate in the fortification work. After May 21, barricades were erected in the upper communal forest of forest trees and stones. The roads and bridges in the village were undermined. In the fields machine gun nests were set up and bunkers expanded. However, it was not an enemy to see.
14 days before the 1st of October, on which the invasion of the German troops was to take place, the administrators of the Sudeten German Party were sought. On October 2, the Czechs left Peterswald. Monday, October 3, was flagged and adorned throughout the place. At 1.30 pm the head of the motorized infantry regiment Hamburg-Itzehoe reached the former border and solemnly laid the boundary post. In the next hour, the barricades at the customs office were cleared away and the troops were received with enthusiasm. The soldiers stayed for six days guests of the place and were housed in private quarters.
Three days after the invasion, the first transport of food arrived. Thanks to the People’s Welfare 850 people could be beteilt.
By order of 11 October 1938, with effect from 20 November 1938, the German community order was introduced in the Sudeten German territories. The head now bore the title “mayor”.The aldermen stood by him. Mayor Max Wolf was until the end of the war.
New was the establishment of the registry office, which was led by the mayor Max Wolf. Births, marriages and deaths have now been registered by the registry office.
However, after 1938 the ecclesiastical matrices were much used, because all those who held a position in the party, state or army had to furnish proof of their German-blooded origin. The church life experienced no restrictions, only in 1942, the church bells were confiscated to the smallest bell again.
The memorial days of the German Reich were celebrated at school. The reform of vocational education in the district of Aussig meant that the small general training schools in the district – Peterswald had one – and were summarized in the two district vocational schools Aussig and Schreckenstein.
In the so-called supplementary elections to the Greater German Reichstag on 4 December 1938 there were voters in Peterswald 2012. 1998 votes were cast, of which 1997 were yes votes, 1 vote was invalid.
In the census of 1939 Peterswald counted 521 houses and 2429 inhabitants in 883 households. 65% of the population was employed in industry and crafts. Until 1945 the following companies existed: Vinzenz Werner in the Hoffmann factory, Richard Haase, Rudolf Püschel, Gustav Körtel, Rauchfuß & Söhne, Karl Kühnel, C. Kühnel, August Wolf & Sohn, Josef Haase, Franz Schönbach in the Oberdorf, Anton Löbel and the Companies Hans Dittmayer and Piezug from Hellendorf in the former companies Anton Kühnel, Wenzel Wolf, Franz Schönbach and in the Künzel economy. These all produced buttons, metalware and especially zippers. In addition, Franz Fiedler and Emil Körtel produced cardboard boxes. In recent years, workers from other villages came to Peterswald, so that the population grew again to about 3,000.
The post office was immediately after the invasion of the German troops under the direction of the postman Meier, Pirna, connected to Pirna, so that the industry was not interrupted and the export could seek immediately new ways. The telephone service also worked. All state offices were now in German hands.
In the spring of 1939, in particular, many Reich Germans arrived in the “liberated” Sudetenland. Also Peterswald got from the nearby Pirna and Dresden visit, also Berlin arrived. Seventeen good and clean restaurants provided for the physical well-being of the hikers, summer visitors and winter sports enthusiasts. Peterswald was a starting point for beautiful hikes to the Tyssaer walls, Raiza, Schneeberg, the nearby Saxon Switzerland, the saddle mountain at Schönwald and the imperial waiting at Nollendorf.
The Peterswald section of the mountain association Aussig was responsible for the marking of well-maintained hiking trails. 1939 existed a bus connection Aussig – Peterswald – Dresden beside the connection Karbitz – Tellnitz – Nollendorf – Peter forest – king forest. The post office went over Bodenbach.
After the decisions of the Standstill Commissioner in Reichenberg in 1939 individual clubs were dissolved or transferred to other organizations, such as the military veteran’s club in the Reichskriegerbund.
The unions took over the “German Labor Front”.
All were filled with the best hopes for the future, a new life seemed to unfold everywhere. There were no unemployed and no beggars anymore. Even the transformation of the remainder of Czechoslovakia since March 15, 1939, seemed a success for Hitler, but proved to be a grave mistake in his policy in the period that followed. His ambition to regain Gdansk eventually led to the war with Poland, which expanded into the second long-range war. Now the various restrictions in daily life were repeated, and the number of war victims brought by Peterswald is not known at all. On 9 May 1945, the German Wehrmacht was forced to surrender and the previous order, which still prevailed in the hinterland, dissolved.
The collapse and expulsion of the Germans
In May 1945, the fronts were directly in front of Peterswald. After the ceasefire on May 9, the place with its significant north-south road was a passageway of the retreating German and forward Russian troops and the prisoners. At the time of the Russian occupation, hundreds of families had to leave their homes and shelter in the forests around Peterswald for a long time from the plundering and rape of Russian troops. Alone 68 people have taken their own lives in Peterswald.
In June, the evictions started. Gradually, Gypsies and Czechs were settled, who took over the previously exemplary farms, shops and farms. Even then, our compatriots recognized that the new “masters” were unable to keep everything in the same condition as they had before. It went steadily downhill. Companies have been merged many times. Valuable machines were simply put outdoors and delivered to forfeiture. What was diligently created through many generations in agriculture and industry, was now a victim of a few years. Today, only about 15 families of the formerly almost 3000 inhabitants live in the village. Only a few are employed in industry, others work on collective farms. Timber and furniture were burned,
At the time of the expulsion, only Germans lived in Peterswald. The first expulsions took place on July 11, 1945. The Czechs led a part of the German population across the border in trucks and unloaded the so-called bereaved from Pirna. There they left her destitute simply destiny. Further transports – the Czechs even in the official language only ever speak of “abduction” (Odsun) – did not take place until April 1946.
The number of victims of the expulsion from the Peterswald, who lost their lives in their homeland, is at least 28. The internment camps Schöbritz, Lerchenfeld and Theresienstadt were killed: Karl Blumentritt, Franz Ritschel (innkeeper), Franz Wolf 218, Franz Zappe, Josef Karger, Richard Bail, Richard Kaupa, Emil Ritschel, Karl Schönbach 390, Erwin Schönbach, Julius Ritschel, Hans Dittmayer, Max Wolf (mayor), Franz Ritschel (accountant), 17 other, but probably more, made their lives in utter hopelessness itself an end.
Several of the Peterswald families, who had only a few steps to the border but did not want to give up their homeland, were taken to the interior of the Czech Republic, where they were held for a long time, during the deportation of Sudeten German population into Czech territory. Many of the Peterswald forests, which were driven away to Saxony, sought to keep close to the border in order to stay as near as possible to their homeland. From the frontier to the Gottleuba Berggießhübel in Saxony, many Peterswälder lived or lived in this way, but a large part of them were removed from the border area by the Soviet Zone authorities. Incidentally, this late measure of redistribution hit countless Sudeten Germans across the entire border area of Upper Saxony, after they had regained their footing.
A large part of the expelled Peterswalder lives today in Mecklenburg in the area of Wittenberge. Many found accommodation on the island of Rügen, others again in the area of Halle.About 40% live in the Soviet Zone. The rest live in the Federal Republic, a large part in the circle Offenbach am Main, a part in the Bavarian alpine foreland. The overwhelming majority of the Peterswalder families are scattered in all directions. Some are in America, Canada, Sweden, Austria, Belgium.